۞ أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ فَقَالَ لَهُمُ اللَّهُ مُوتُوا ثُمَّ أَحْيَاهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ
Have you not considered those who left their homes in many thousands, fearing death? Allah said to them, "Die"; then He restored them to life. And Allah is full of bounty to the people, but most of the people do not show gratitude.
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أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُواْ مِن دِيَـرِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ فَقَالَ لَهُمُ اللَّهُ مُوتُواْ ثُمَّ أَحْيَـهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَشْكُرُونَ - وَقَـتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ - مَّن ذَا الَّذِى يُقْرِضُ اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا فَيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافًا كَثِيرَةً وَاللَّهُ يَقْبِضُ وَيَبْسُطُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
(243. Did you (O Muhammad ) not think of those who went forth from their homes in the thousands, fearing death Allah said to them, "Die''. And then He restored them to life. Truly, Allah is full of bounty to mankind, but most men thank not.)
(244. And fight in the way of Allah and know that Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.)
(245. Who is he that will lend to Allah a goodly loan so that He may multiply it to him many times And it is Allah that decreases or increases (your provisions), and unto Him you shall return.)
Ibn Abu Hatim related that Ibn `Abbas said that these people mentioned herein, were the residents of a village called Dawardan. `Ali bin `Asim said that they were from Dawardan, a village several miles away from Wasit (in Iraq). In his Tafsir, Waki` bin Jarrah said that Ibn `Abbas commented,
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُواْ مِن دِيَـرِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ
(Did you (O Muhammad ) not think of those who went forth from their homes in thousands, fearing death) that they were four thousand persons who escaped the plague (that broke out in their land). They said, "We should go to a land that is free of death!'' When they reached a certain area, Allah said to them:
("Die.'') and they all died. Afterwards, one of the Prophets passed by them and supplicated to Allah to resurrect them and Allah brought them back to life. So, Allah stated:
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُواْ مِن دِيَـرِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ
r(Did you (O Muhammad ) not think of those who went forth from their homes in the thousands, fearing death) Furthermore, several scholars among the Salaf said that these people were the residents of a city during the time of the Children of Israel. The weather in their land did not suit them and an epidemic broke out. They fled their land fearing death and took refuge in the wilderness. They later arrived at a fertile valley and they filled what is between its two sides. Then Allah sent two angels to them, one from the lower side and the other from the upper side of the valley. The angels screamed once and all the people died instantly, just as the death of one man. They were later moved to a different place, where walls and graves were built around them. They all perished, and their bodies rotted and disintegrated. Long afterwards, one of the Prophets of the Children of Israel, whose name was Hizqil (Ezekiel), passed by them and asked Allah to bring them back to life by his hand. Allah accepted his supplication and commanded him to say, "O rotted bones, Allah commands you to come together.'' The bones of every body were brought together. Allah then commanded him to say, "O bones, Allah commands you to be covered with flesh, nerves and skin.'' That also happened while Hizqil was watching. Allah then commanded him to say, "O souls, Allah commands you to return, each to the body that it used to inhabit.'' They all came back to life, looked around and proclaimed, "All praise is due to You (O Allah!) and there is no deity worthy of worship except You.'' Allah brought them back to life after they had perished long ago. We should state that bringing these people back to life is a clear proof that physical resurrection shall occur on the Day of Resurrection. This is why Allah said:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ
(Truly, Allah is full of bounty to mankind,) meaning, in that He shows them His great signs, sound proofs and clear evidences. Yet,
وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَشْكُرُونَ
(but most men thank not.) as they do not thank Allah for what He has given them with in their worldly life and religious affairs. The story of the dead people (2:244 above) also indicates that no caution can ever avert destiny and that there is no refuge from Allah, but to Allah Himself. These people departed from their land fleeing the epidemic and seeking to enjoy a long life. What they earned was the opposite of what they sought, as death came quickly and instantaneously and seized them all. There is an authentic Hadith that Imam Ahmad reported that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab once went to Ash-Sham (Syria). When he reached the area of Sargh, he was met by the commanders of the army: Abu `Ubaydah bin Jarrah and his companions. They told him that the plague had broken out in Ash-Sham. The Hadith then mentioned that `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf, who was away attending to some of his affairs, came and said, "I have knowledge regarding this matter. I heard Allah's Messenger say:
«إِذَا كَانَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهَا فَلَا تَخْرُجُوا فِرَارًا مِنْه، وإِذَا سَمِعتُمْ به بأَرْضٍ فَلا تَقْدمُوا عَلَيْه»
(If it (the plague) breaks out in a land that you are in, do not leave that land to escape from it. If you hear about it in a land, do not enter it.) `Umar then thanked Allah and went back. This Hadith is also reported in the Sahihayn.
وَقَـتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
(And fight in the way of Allah and know that Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.) This Ayah indicates that just as caution does not alter destiny, abandoning Jihad will neither bring the appointed term closer nor delay it. Rather, destiny and the appointed provisions are fixed and shall never be changed or altered, neither by addition nor deletion. Similarly, Allah said:
الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ لإِخْوَنِهِمْ وَقَعَدُواْ لَوْ أَطَاعُونَا مَا قُتِلُوا قُلْ فَادْرَءُوا عَنْ أَنفُسِكُمُ الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ
((They are) the ones who said about their killed brethren while they themselves sat (at home): "If only they had listened to us, they would not have been killed.'' Say: "Avert death from your own selves, if you speak the truth.'') (3:168) Allah said:
وَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبْتَ عَلَيْنَا الْقِتَالَ لَوْلا أَخَّرْتَنَا إِلَى أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ قُلْ مَتَـعُ الدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالاٌّخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقَى وَلاَ تُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاًأَيْنَمَا تَكُونُواْ يُدْرِككُّمُ الْمَوْتُ وَلَوْ كُنتُمْ فِى بُرُوجٍ مُّشَيَّدَةٍ
(They say: "Our Lord! Why have you ordained for us fighting Would that you had granted us respite for a short period'' Say: "Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatila (a scalish thread in the long slit of a date stone). Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!'') (4:77, 78) Abu Sulayman, Khalid bin Al-Walid, the commander of the Muslim armies, the veteran among Muslim soldiers, the protector of Islam and the Sword of Allah that was raised above His enemies, said while dying, "I have participated in so-and-so number of battles. There is not a part of my body, but suffered a shot (of an arrow), a stab (of a spear) or a strike (of a sword). Yet, here I am, I die on my bed just as the camel dies! May the eyes of the cowards never taste sleep.'' He, may Allah be pleased with him, was sorry and in pain because he did not die as martyr in battle. He was sad that he had to die on his bed!
مَّن ذَا الَّذِى يُقْرِضُ اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا فَيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافًا كَثِيرَةً
(Who is he that will lend to Allah a goodly loan so that He may multiply it to him many times) In this Ayah, Allah encourages His servants to spend in His cause. Allah mentioned this same Ayah in several other parts of His Glorious Qur'an. The Hadith that mentions that Allah descends (every night down on the nearest heaven to us when the last third of the night remains) states that Allah says:
«مَنْ يُقْرِضُ غَيْرَ عَدِيمٍ وَلَا ظَلُوم»
(Who would give a loan to He Who is neither poor nor unjust.) Allah's statement:
فَيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافًا كَثِيرَةً
(He may multiply it to him many times), is similar to His statement:
مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَلَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ حَبَّةٍ أَنبَتَتْ سَبْعَ سَنَابِلَ فِي كُلِّ سُنبُلَةٍ مِّاْئَةُ حَبَّةٍ وَاللَّهُ يُضَـعِفُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ
(The likeness of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah, is as the likeness of a grain (of corn); it grows seven ears, and each ear has a hundred grains. Allah gives manifold increase to whom He wills.) (2:261) We will mention this Ayah later on. Allah then said:
وَاللَّهُ يَقْبِضُ وَيَبْسُطُ
(And it is Allah that decreases or increases (your provisions), ) meaning, `Spend (in Allah's cause) and do not be anxious.' Certainly, Allah is the Sustainer Who increases or decreases the provisions to whomever He wills among His servants. Allah's wisdom is perfect, and,
(and unto Him you shall return.) on the Day of Resurrection.
Disebutkan kisah ini adalah untuk menyemangatkan kaum muslimin dalam berperang. Oleh karena itu, setelah ayat ini disebutkan perintah berperang di jalan Allah.
Karena penyakit tha'un atau karena perang. Dalam tafsir Al Jalalain disebutkan bahwa mereka adalah salah satu kaum Bani Israil, di mana negeri mereka terserang penyakit tha'un, lalu mereka melarikan diri karena takut mati, maka Allah mematikan mereka sebagai hukuman bagi mereka karena melarikan diri dari qadar Allah. Kemudian setelah delapan hari atau lebih, mereka dihidupkan kembali oleh Allah dengan do'a nabi mereka Hizqail, wallahu a'lam. Hal tersebut merupakan rahmat, kelembutan dan santunnya Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala kepada manusia, sekaligus bukti bahwa Allah mampu menghidupkan yang telah mati.
Untuk disempurnakan ajalnya dan agar mereka mengambil pelajaran serta bertobat.
Di antaranya adalah dihidupkan-Nya mereka setelah matinya dan diarahkan-Nya mereka kepada yang terbaik.
Nikmat yang diberikan bukan menambah mereka bersyukur, bahkan nikmat-nikmat tersebut seringnya mereka gunakan untuk maksiat kepada Allah. Sedikit sekali di antara mereka yang bersyukur; mengenal nikmat tersebut dan menggunakannya untuk ketaatan kepada Allah.