وَإِذَا كُنْتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُوا فَلْيَكُونُوا مِنْ وَرَائِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَائِفَةٌ أُخْرَىٰ لَمْ يُصَلُّوا فَلْيُصَلُّوا مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ ۗ وَدَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُمْ مَيْلَةً وَاحِدَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنْ كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِنْ مَطَرٍ أَوْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَىٰ أَنْ تَضَعُوا أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ ۖ وَخُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُهِينًا
And when you are among them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in prayer] with you and let them carry their arms. And when they have prostrated, let them be [in position] behind you and have the other group come forward which has not [yet] prayed and let them pray with you, taking precaution and carrying their arms. Those who disbelieve wish that you would neglect your weapons and your baggage so they could come down upon you in one [single] attack. But there is no blame upon you, if you are troubled by rain or are ill, for putting down your arms, but take precaution. Indeed, Allah has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.
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(And when thou (O Muhammad) art among them and arrangest (their) worship for them…) [4:102]. Theteacher Abu ‘Uthman al-Za‘farani al-Muqri’ informed us in the year 25> Abu Muhammad ‘Abd Allah ibnMuhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Ziyad al-Suddi in the year 363> Abu Sa‘id al-Fadl ibn Muhammad al-Jazari in theSacred Mosque, Mecca, in 304> ‘Ali ibn Ziyad al-Lahji> Abu Qurrah Musa ibn Tariq> Sufyan> Mansur>Mujahid> Abu ‘Ayyash al-Zurraqi who said: “We performed the prayer of Zuhr with the Messenger of Allah,Allah bless him and give him peace, upon which the idolaters exclaimed: ‘They were in a vulnerablesituation, why did we not attack them by surprise?’ Then they said: ‘There shall come another prayer whichis more beloved to them than their own fathers, which is the midafternoon (‘Asr) prayer’. Gabriel, peace beupon him, then came down with these verses between the Zuhr and the ‘Asr prayers. (And when thou (OMuhammad) art among them and arrangest (their) worship for them) in ‘Usfan, while the idolaters were ledby Khalid ibn al-Walid; they were between us and the qiblah, and then He mentioned the prayer of fear”.‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Abdan informed us> Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Dabbi> Muhammadibn Ya‘qub> Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar> Yunus ibn Bukayr> al-Nadr Abu ‘Umar> ‘Ikrimah> Ibn ‘Abbas whosaid: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, went out and met the idolaters in ‘Usfan.When he performed the Zuhr prayer, and the idolaters saw him bowing and prostrating, they said to eachother: ‘This was a missed opportunity for you. If you had raided them then, they would not have felt youcoming until you had effectively attacked them’. One of them said: ‘They have another prayer which is morebeloved to them than their wives and wealth, so get ready to raid them when they are performing it’. Allah,glorious and majestic is He, then revealed to His Prophet, (And when thou (O Muhammad) art among themand arrangest (their) worship for them) up to the end of the verse, and informed him about the plot of theidolaters and mentioned therein the prayer of fear”.
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَوةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُواْ فَلْيَكُونُواْ مِن وَرَآئِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَآئِفَةٌ أُخْرَى لَمْ يُصَلُّواْ فَلْيُصَلُّواْ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ وَدَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُمْ مَّيْلَةً وَحِدَةً وَلاَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَن تَضَعُواْ أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ وَخُذُواْ حِذْرَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَـفِرِينَ عَذَاباً مُّهِيناً
(102. When you (O Messenger Muhammad ) are among them, and lead them in Salah, let one party of them stand up in prayer with you, taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you, taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush, but there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves. Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers.)
The Fear prayer has different forms, for the enemy is sometimes in the direction of the Qiblah and sometimes in another direction. The Fear prayer consists sometimes of four Rak`ahs, three Rak`ahs, as for Maghrib, and sometimes two Rak`ah like Fajr and prayer during travel. The Fear prayer is sometimes prayed in congregation, but when the battle is raging, congregational prayer may not be possible. In this case, they pray each by himself, facing the Qiblah or otherwise, riding or on foot. In this situation, they are allowed to walk and fight, all the while performing the acts of the prayer. Some scholars said that in the latter case, they pray only one Rak`ah, for Ibn `Abbas narrated, "By the words of your Prophet , Allah has ordained the prayer of four Rak`ah while residing, two Rak`ah during travel, and one Rak`ah during fear.'' Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah recorded it. This is also the view of Ahmad bin Hanbal. Al-Mundhiri said, "This is the saying of `Ata', Jabir, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Al-Hakam, Qatadah and Hammad; and Tawus and Ad-Dahhak also prefered it.'' Abu `Asim Al-`Abadi mentioned that Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Marwazi said the Fajr prayer also becomes one Rak`ah during fear. This is also the opinion of Ibn Hazm. Ishaq bin Rahwayh said, "When a battle is raging, one Rak`ah during which you nod your head is sufficient for you. If you are unable, then one prostration is sufficient, because the prostration is remembrance of Allah.''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu `Ayyash Az-Zuraqi said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah in the area of `Usfan (a well known place near Makkah), when the idolators met us under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid, and they were between us and the Qiblah. The Messenger of Allah led us in Zuhr prayer, and the idolators said, `They were busy with something during which we had a chance to attack them.' They then said, `Next, there will come a prayer (`Asr) that is dearer to them than their children and themselves.' However, Jibril came down with these Ayat between the prayers of Zuhr and `Asr,
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَوةَ
(When you (O Messenger Muhammad ) are among them, and lead them in Salah (prayer)). When the time for prayer came, the Messenger of Allah commanded Muslims to hold their weapons and he made us stand in two lines behind him. When he bowed, we all bowed behind him. When he raised his head, we all raised our heads. The Prophet then prostrated with the line that was behind him while the rest stood in guard. When they finished with the prostration and stood up, the rest sat and performed prostration, while those who performed it stood up in guard after the two lines exchanged position. The Prophet then bowed and they all bowed after him, then raised their heads after he raised his head. Then the Prophet performed prostration with the line that was behind him, while the rest stood in guard. When those who made prostration sat, the rest prostrated. The Prophet then performed the Taslim and ended the prayer. The Messenger of Allah performed this prayer twice, once in `Usfan and once in the land of Banu Sulaym.''' This is the narration recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i, and it has an authentic chain of narration and many other texts to support it. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Once the Prophet led the Fear prayer and the people stood behind him. He said Allahu-Akbar and the people said the same. He bowed and some of them bowed. Then he prostrated and they also prostrated. Then he stood for the second Rak`ah and those who had prayed the first Rak`ah left and guarded their brothers. The second party joined him and performed bowing and prostration with him. All the people were in prayer, but they were guarding one another during the prayer.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah led them in the Fear prayer. A group of them stood before him and a group behind him. The Prophet led those who were behind him with one Rak`ah and two prostrations. They then moved to the position of those who did not pray, while the others stood in their place, and the Messenger of Allah performed one Rak`ah and two prostrations and then said the Salam. Therefore, the Prophet prayed two Rak`ah while they prayed one. An-Nasa'i recorded this Hadith, while Muslim collected other wordings for it. Collectors of the Sahih, Sunan and Musnad collections recorded this in a Hadith from Jabir. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Salim said that his father said,
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَوةَ
(When you (O Messenger Muhammad ) are among them, and lead them in Salah (prayer)) refers to the Fear prayer. The Messenger of Allah led one group and prayed one Rak`ah, while the second group faced the enemy. Then the second group that faced the enemy came and Allah's Messenger led them, praying one Rak`ah, and then said the Salam. Each of the two groups then stood up and prayed one more Rak`ah each (while the other group stood in guard).'' The Group collected this Hadith with Ma`mar in its chain of narrators. This Hadith also has many other chains of narration from several Companions, and Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah collected these various narrations, as did Ibn Jarir. As for the command to hold the weapons during the Fear prayer, a group of scholars said that it is obligatory according to the Ayah. What testifies to this is that Allah said;
وَلاَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَن تَضَعُواْ أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ وَخُذُواْ حِذْرَكُمْ
(But there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves) meaning, so that when necessary, you will be able to get to your weapons easily,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَـفِرِينَ عَذَاباً مُّهِيناً
(Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers).
Sedangkan segolongan lagi berjaga-jaga. Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala memerintahkan menyandang senjata dan bersiap siaga dalam shalat khauf meskipun di sana terdapat gerakan dan menyibukkan diri dengan sesuatu yang mengalihkan dari sebagian keadaan shalat, namun di sana terdapat maslahat yang besar, yaitu menggabung antara shalat, jihad dan bersiap siaga terhadap musuh yang berusaha mencari saat di mana kaum muslimin lengah.
Yakni apabila telah selesai satu rakaat, maka diselesaikan satu rakaat lagi sendiri-sendiri, sedangkan Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam duduk menunggu golongan yang kedua.
Yaitu rakaat yang pertama, sedangkan rakaat yang kedua mereka selesaikan sendiri-sendiri dan mereka mengakhiri shalat bersama dengan Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Cara di atas adalah salah di antara cara shalat khauf yang dipraktekkan Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Dalam ayat ini juga terdapat dalil bahwa shalat berjama'ah hukumnya fardhu 'ain, karena Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala memerintahkan shalat berjama'ah dalam kondisi yang mengkhawatirkan ini. Jika dalam kondisi seperti ini masih diperintahkan shalat berjama'ah, maka dalam kondisi aman lebih diperintahkan lagi.
Cara shalat khauf seperti tersebut pada ayat 102 ini dilakukan dalam keadaan yang masih mungkin dikerjakan, apabila tidak memungkinkan untuk dikerjakan seperti peperangan berkecamuk dan sulit membagi dua pasukan, maka masing-masing mengerjakan shalat sesuai kemampuan, bisa sambil berjalan, naik kendaraan menghadap kiblat maupun tidak (berdasarkan surat Al Baqarah ayat 239).
Inilah illat (sebab) mengapa diperintahkan menyandang senjata.
Imam Bukhari meriwayatkan dari Ibnu Abbas radhiyallahu 'anhuma tentang ayat, "In kaana bikum adzam mim matharin au kuntum mardhaa." Ia berkata, "Ketika itu Abdurrahman bin 'Auf terluka." Al Haafizh berkata, "Maka turunlah ayat tersebut."
Maka segala puji bagi Allah atas nikmat-nikmat-Nya yang diberikan kepada kaum mukmin, dikuatkan-Nya mereka dan diajarkan-Nya mereka cara-cara yang jika mereka mengerjakannya secara sempurna, maka tidak ada jalan bagi musuh menguasai mereka kapan pun dan di mana pun.