فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَىٰ أَنْ تُصِيبَنَا دَائِرَةٌ ۚ فَعَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ بِالْفَتْحِ أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ فَيُصْبِحُوا عَلَىٰ مَا أَسَرُّوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ نَادِمِينَ
So you see those in whose hearts is disease hastening into [association with] them, saying, "We are afraid a misfortune may strike us." But perhaps Allah will bring conquest or a decision from Him, and they will become, over what they have been concealing within themselves, regretful.
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(Thou wilt find the most vehement of mankind in hostility to those who believe (to be) the Jews) up to Hiswords (But those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, they are owners of hell-fire) [5:82-86]. Theseverses were revealed about the Negus and his followers. Said Ibn ‘Abbas: “When he was in Mecca, theMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, used to fear the idolaters’ persecution of hisCompanions. He therefore sent Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib and ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud, at the head of a group of hisCompanions, to the Negus. He said: ‘The Negus is a righteous man; he is not an oppressor and none isoppressed in his dominion. So head toward him and remain there until Allah creates relief for the Muslims’.When they went to him, the Negus honoured them and then asked them: ‘Do you memorise anything ofthat which was revealed to you?’ They answered in the affirmative and then recited to him [some Qur’an,]with monks and priests surrounding him. Whenever they read a verse, the tears rolled down their cheeksdue to the truth which they recognized. Allah, exalted is He, says: (That is because there are among thempriests and monks, and because they are not proud)”. Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Farisi informed us>Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Hamdun ibn al-Fadl> Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan> Muhammad ibnYahya> Abu Salih, the scribe of al-Layth> al-Layth> Yunus> Ibn Shihab> Sa‘id ibn al-Musayyab and ‘Urwahibn al-Zubayr as well as others who said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent‘Amr ibn Umayyah al-Damri with a message to the Negus. The latter read the message of the Messenger ofAllah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and then called Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib and all the Emigrants with himand he also invited priests and monks to the assembly. He ordered Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib to recite to them fromthe Qur’an, and he read Surah Maryam, peace be upon her. They believed in the Qur’an and tears flowedfrom their eyes. It is about them that Allah, exalted is He, revealed (And thou wilt find the nearest of themin affection to those who believe (to be) those who say: Lo! We are Christians) up to His words (Inscribe usas among the witnesses)”. Other commentators said: “Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib and his companions came fromAbyssinia accompanied by a delegation from the Negus to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and givehim peace. The delegation included seventy men, all wearing wool. There were sixty-two from Abyssinia andeight from Syria: Bahirah the monk, Abrahah, Idris, Ashraf, Tammam, Quthaym, Durayd and Ayman. Whenthe Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, recited to them Surah Yasin, they wept andbelieved. They commented: ‘How similar is this to what used to be revealed to Jesus’. And so Allah, exaltedis He, revealed about them these verses”. Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-‘Adl informed us> Zahir ibn Ahmad>Abu’l-Qasim al-Baghawi> ‘Ali ibn al-Ja‘d> Sharik> Salim> Sa‘id ibn Jubayr who, commenting on Allah’swords (That is because there are among them priests and monks), said: “The Negus sent thirty men amonghis best subjects to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. When the Messenger ofAllah, Allah bless him and give him peace, recited to them Surah Yasin, they wept, and so this verse wasrevealed”.
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَـرَى أَوْلِيَآءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَهْدِى الْقَوْمَ الظَّـلِمِينَ - فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ يُسَـرِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَن تُصِيبَنَا دَآئِرَةٌ فَعَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَأْتِىَ بِالْفَتْحِ أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِّنْ عِندِهِ فَيُصْبِحُواْ عَلَى مَآ أَسَرُّواْ فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ نَـدِمِينَ - وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَهُـؤُلاءِ الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُواْ بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَـنِهِمْ إِنَّهُمْ لَمَعَكُمْ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ فَأَصْبَحُواْ خَـسِرِينَ
(51. O you who believe! Do not take friends from the Jews and the Christians, as they are but friends of each other. And if any among you befriends them, then surely, he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the wrongdoers.)
(52. And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease, they hurry to their friendship, saying: "We fear lest some misfortune of a disaster may befall us. '' Perhaps Allah may bring a victory or a decision according to His will. Then they will become regretful for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves.)
(53. And those who believe will say: "Are these the men who swore their strongest oaths by Allah that they were with you'' All that they did has been in vain, and they have become the losers.)
Allah forbids His believing servants from having Jews and Christians as friends, because they are the enemies of Islam and its people, may Allah curse them. Allah then states that they are friends of each other and He gives a warning threat to those who do this,
وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ
(And if any among you befriends them, then surely he is one of them.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Umar ordered Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari to send him on one sheet of balance the count of what he took in and what he spent. Abu Musa then had a Christian scribe, and he was able to comply with `Umar's demand. `Umar liked what he saw and exclaimed, "This scribe is proficient. Would you read in the Masjid a letter that came to us from Ash-Sham'' Abu Musa said, `He cannot.'' `Umar said, "Is he not pure'' Abu Musa said, "No, but he is Christian.'' Abu Musa said, "So `Umar admonished me and poked my thigh (with his finger), saying, `Drive him out (from Al-Madinah).' He then recited,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَـرَى أَوْلِيَآءَ
(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as friends...)'' Then he reported that `Abdullah bin `Utbah said, "Let one of you beware that he might be a Jew or a Christian, while unaware.'' The narrator of this statement said, "We thought that he was referring to the Ayah,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَـرَى أَوْلِيَآءَ
(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as friends, )'' Allah said,
فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ
(And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease...) A disease of doubt, hesitation and hypocrisy.
(they hurry to their friendship,) meaning, they rush to offer them their friendship and allegiances in secret and in public,
يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَن تُصِيبَنَا دَآئِرَةٌ
(saying: "We fear lest some misfortune of a disaster may befall us.") They thus offer this excuse for their friendship and allegiances to the disbelievers, saying that they fear that the disbelievers might defeat the Muslims, so they want to be in favor with the Jews and Christians, to use this favor for their benefit in that eventuality! Allah replied,
فَعَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَأْتِىَ بِالْفَتْحِ
(Perhaps Allah may bring a victory...) referring to the conquering of Makkah, according to As-Suddi.
أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِّنْ عِندِهِ
(or a decision according to His will) requiring the Jews and Christians to pay the Jizyah, as As-Suddi stated,
(Then they will become) meaning, the hypocrites who gave their friendship to the Jews and Christians, will become,
عَلَى مَآ أَسَرُّواْ فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ
(for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves) of allegiances,
(regretful,) for their friendship with the Jews and Christians which did not benefit them or protect them from any harm. Rather, it was nothing but harm, as Allah exposed their true reality to His faithful servants in this life, although they tried to conceal it. When the signs that exposed their hypocrisy were compiled against them, their matter became clear to Allah's faithful servants. So the believers were amazed at these hypocrites who pretended to be believers, swearing to their faithfulness, yet their claims were all lies and deceit. This is why Allah said, s
وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَهُـؤُلاءِ الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُواْ بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَـنِهِمْ إِنَّهُمْ لَمَعَكُمْ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ فَأَصْبَحُواْ خَـسِرِينَ
(And those who believe will say, "Are these the men who swore their strongest oaths by Allah that they were with you'' All that they did has been in vain, and they have become the losers.)