وَمِنْ شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ
And from the evil of an envier when he envies."
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(Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of the Daybreak…) [113:1-5] The commentators of the Qur'an said: “TheMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, had a Jewish servant boy. The Jews approachedhim and kept after him until he gave them some fallen hair from the Prophet, Allah bless him and give himpeace, as well as a few teeth from his comb. The Jews used these to cast a spell of black magic on him. Theperson who was behind this was the Jew Labid ibn al-A'sam. He then put the hair in a well belonging toBanu Zurayq called Dharwan. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, fell ill for a periodof six month, during which the hair of his head fell off; he imagined that he slept with his wives when he didnot, and was withering away without knowing the reason. As he was one day sleeping, he saw two angelscoming to him. One of them sat at his head and the other at his feet. The angel who sat at his head asked:'What is wrong with the man?' The second angel responded: 'A spell of black magic was cast on him'. Thefirst one asked: 'And who is responsible for this sorcery?' The second angel answered: 'It is Labid ibn al-A'sam, the Jew'. The first angel asked again: 'What did he use to cast black magic on him?' The secondangel said: 'He used a comb and fallen hair'. The first angel asked: 'Where is it now?' The second angel said:'It is inside the spadix of a palm tree beneath the stepping stone which is inside the well of Dharwan', atwhich point the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, woke up. He said: 'O 'A'ishah, doyou not think that this is from Allah to inform me of the cause of my illness?' He then sent 'Ali [ibn AbiTalib], al-Zubayr [ibn al-'Awwam] and 'Ammar [ibn Yasir] who drained the water of that well as one woulddrain the dust of henna. They lifted the stone and got the spadix out and found therein some of the hair ofthe Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, as well a few teeth from his comb. They alsofound with it a string with eleven knots knitted with needles. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed Surah al-Falaq and Surah al-Nas (al-Mu'awwidhatayn). With each verse that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless himand give him peace, read one knot was untied and the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, feltsome lightness. When the last knot was untied, the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, got up as ifhe was released from a cord to which he was tied up. Gabriel, peace be upon him, kept saying: 'In the nameof Allah I cast this incantation on you to protect you from anything that might harm you and that Allah healsyou from the resentful envier and the evil eye'. Those around him said: 'O Messenger of Allah, should we nothead toward that evil person and kill him?' He said: 'As for me, Allah has cured me, and I dislike causing evilto other people'. This is of the forbearance of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace”.Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Ja'far informed us> Abu 'Amr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hiri> Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Mawsili> Mujahid ibn Musa> Abu Usamah> Hisham ibn 'Urwa> his father> 'A'ishah,may Allah be well pleased with her, who said: “A spell of black magic was cast on the Prophet, Allah blesshim and give him peace, such that he used to imagine that he did things when he did not. He was at myplace, one day, and he began imploring Allah in earnest. Then he said: 'Did you not feel, O 'A'ishah, thatAllah has answered me about that which I have enquired?' I said: 'And what is that, O Messenger of Allah?'He said: 'Two angels came to me…', and he mentioned the whole story”. The whole story is narrated byBukhari from 'Ubayd ibn Isma'il from Abu Usamah. The same narration has different channels oftransmission in both the authentic collections of Bukhari and Muslim. The book Asbab Nuzul al-Qur'anconcludes here, and praise be to Allah, the One, the Munificent, and may Allah bless our master Muhammad,his household and all those who follow them in excellence.
قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبّ الْفَلَقِ- مِن شَرّ مَا خَلَقَ- وَمِن شَرّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ- وَمِن شَرّ النَّفَّـثَـتِ فِى الْعُقَدِ- وَمِن شَرّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ-
(1. Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq,'')
(2. "From the evil of what He has created,'')
(3. "And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,'')
(4. "And from the evil of the blowers in knots,'')
(5. "And from the evil of the envier when he envies.'')
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Jabir said, "Al-Falaq is the morning.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "Al-Falaq is the morning.'' The same has been reported from Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Abdullah bin Muhammad bin `Aqil, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and Ibn Zayd. Malik also reported a similar statement from Zayd bin Aslam. Al-Qurazi, Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir all said, "This is like Allah's saying,
(He is the Cleaver of the daybreak.).'' (6:96) Allah said,
مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ
(From the evil of what He has created,) This means from the evil of all created things. Thabit Al-Bunani and Al-Hasan Al-Basri both said, "Hell, Iblis and his progeny, from among that which He (Allah) created.''
وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ
(And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,) Mujahid said, "Ghasiq is the night, and `when it Waqab' refers to the setting of the sun.'' Al-Bukhari mentioned this from him. Ibn Abi Najih also reported a similar narration from him (Mujahid). The same was said by Ibn `Abbas, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Ad-Dahhak, Khusayf, Al-Hasan and Qatadah. They said, "Verily, it is the night when it advances with its darkness.'' Az-Zuhri said,
وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ
(And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,) "This means the sun when it sets.'' Abu Al-Muhazzim reported that Abu Hurayrah said,
وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ
(And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab, ) "This means the star.'' Ibn Zayd said, "The Arabs used to say, `Al-Ghasiq is the declination (of the position) of the heavenly body known as Pleiades. The number of those who were ill and stricken with plague would increase whenever it would decline, and their number would lessen whenever it rose.''' Ibn Jarir said, "Others have said that it is the moon.'' The support for the people who hold this position (that it means the moon) is a narration that Imam Ahmad recorded from Al-Harith bin Abi Salamah. He said that `A'ishah said, "The Messenger of Allah took me by my hand and showed me the moon when it rose, and he said,
«تَعَوَّذِي بِاللهِ مِنْ شَرِّ هَذَا الْغَاسِقِ إِذَا وَقَبَ»
(Seek refuge with Allah from the evil of this Ghasiq when it becomes dark.)'' At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i both recorded this Hadith in their Books of Tafsir in their Sunans. Allah said,
وَمِن شَرِّ النَّفَّـثَـتِ فِى الْعُقَدِ
(And from the evil of the blowers in knots,) Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak all said, "This means the witches.'' Mujahid said, "When they perform their spells and blow into the knots.'' In another Hadith it has been reported that Jibril came to the Prophet and said, "Are you suffering from any ailment, O Muhammad'' The Prophet replied,
(Yes.) So Jibril said, "In the Name of Allah, I recite prayer (Ruqyah) over you, from every illness that harms you, from the evil of every envious person and evil eye. May Allah cure you.''
In the Book of Medicine of his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah said, "The Messenger of Allah was bewitched until he thought that he had relations with his wives, but he had not had relations with them.'' Sufyan said, "This is the worst form of magic when it reaches this stage.'' So the Prophet said,
«يَا عَائِشَةُ، أَعَلِمْتِ أَنَّ اللهَ قَدْ أَفْتَانِي فِيمَا اسْتَفْتَيْتُهُ فِيهِ؟ أَتَانِي رَجُلَانِ فَقَعَدَ أَحَدُهُمَا عِنْدَ رَأْسِي وَالْاخَرُ عِنْدَ رِجْلَيَّ، فَقَال الَّذِي عِنْدَ رَأْسِي لِلْاخَرِ: مَا بَالُ الرَّجُلِ؟ قَالَ: مَطْبُوبٌ، قَالَ: وَمَنْ طَبَّهُ، قَالَ: لَبِيدُ بْنُ أَعْصَمَ: رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي زُرَيْقٍ حَلِيفٌ لِيَهُودَ، كَانَ مُنَافِقًا، قَالَ: وَفِيمَ؟ قَالَ: فِي مُشْطٍ وَمُشَاطَةٍ، قَالَ: وَأَيْنَ؟ قَالَ: فِي جُفِّ طَلْعَةٍ ذَكَرٍ، تَحْتَ رَاعُوفَةٍ فِي بِئْرِ ذَرْوَانَ»
(O `A'ishah! Do you know that Allah has answered me concerning that which I asked Him Two men came to me and one of them sat by my head while the other sat by my feet. The one who was sitting by my head said to the other one, `What is wrong with this man' The other replied, `He is bewitched.' The first one said, `Who bewitched him' The other replied, `Labid bin A`sam. He is a man from the tribe of Banu Zurayq who is an ally of the Jews, and a hypocrite.' The first one asked, `With what (did he bewitch him)' The other replied, `With a comb and hair from the comb.' The first one asked, `Where (is the comb)' The other answered, `In the dried bark of a male date palm under a rock in a well called Dharwan.') `A'ishah said, "So he went to the well to remove it (the comb with the hair). Then he said,
«هَذِهِ الْبِئْرُ الَّتِي أُرِيتُهَا، وَكَأَنَّ مَاءَهَا نُقَاعَةُ الحِنَّاءِ،وَكَأَنَّ نَخْلَهَا رُؤُوسُ الشَّيَاطِين»
(This is the well that I saw. It was as if its water had henna soaked in it and its palm trees were like the heads of devils.) So he removed it (of the well). Then I (`A'ishah) said, `Will you not make this public' He replied,
Hasad artinya suka atau senang jika nikmat yang ada pada orang lain hilang darinya. Namun jika senang pada nikmat orang lain dalam arti, ia senang jika ia memperoleh pula nikmat itu dan tidak ada keinginan agar nikmat pada orang lain hilang, maka tidaklah tercela, hal ini dinamakan juga âghibthahâ.
Yakni menampakkan kedengkiannya dan melakukan konsekwensi dari dengki itu dengan melakukan segala sebab yang bisa dilakukan agar nikmat itu hilang darinya. Termasuk ke dalam yang hasad adalah orang yang menimpakan keburukan kepada orang lain melalui matanya (âain), karena hal itu tidaklah muncul kecuali dari orang yang dengki yang buruk tabiatnya dan buruk jiwanya. Demikian pula termasuk ke dalam âyang hasadâ adalah Iblis dan keturunannya yang sangat dengki kepada manusia.