مِنْ شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ
From the evil of the retreating whisperer -
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(Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind…) [114:1-6]. The commentators of the Qur'an said: “TheMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, had a Jewish servant boy. The Jews approachedhim and kept after him until he gave them some fallen hair from the Prophet, Allah bless him and give himpeace, as well as a few teeth from his comb. The Jews used these to cast a spell of black magic on him. Theperson who was behind this was the Jew Labid ibn al-A'sam. He then put the hair in a well belonging toBanu Zurayq called Dharwan. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, fell ill for a periodof six month, during which the hair of his head fell off; he imagined that he slept with his wives when he didnot, and was withering away without knowing the reason. As he was one day sleeping, he saw two angelscoming to him. One of them sat at his head and the other at his feet. The angel who sat at his head asked:'What is wrong with the man?' The second angel responded: 'A spell of black magic was cast on him'. Thefirst one asked: 'And who is responsible for this sorcery?' The second angel answered: 'It is Labid ibn al-A'sam, the Jew'. The first angel asked again: 'What did he use to cast black magic on him?' The secondangel said: 'He used a comb and fallen hair'. The first angel asked: 'Where is it now?' The second angel said:'It is inside the spadix of a palm tree beneath the stepping stone which is inside the well of Dharwan', atwhich point the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, woke up. He said: 'O 'A'ishah, doyou not think that this is from Allah to inform me of the cause of my illness?' He then sent 'Ali [ibn AbiTalib], al-Zubayr [ibn al-'Awwam] and 'Ammar [ibn Yasir] who drained the water of that well as one woulddrain the dust of henna. They lifted the stone and got the spadix out and found therein some of the hair ofthe Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, as well a few teeth from his comb. They alsofound with it a string with eleven knots knitted with needles. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed Surah al-Falaq and Surah al-Nas (al-Mu'awwidhatayn). With each verse that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless himand give him peace, read one knot was untied and the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, feltsome lightness. When the last knot was untied, the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, got up as ifhe was released from a cord to which he was tied up. Gabriel, peace be upon him, kept saying: 'In the nameof Allah I cast this incantation on you to protect you from anything that might harm you and that Allah healsyou from the resentful envier and the evil eye'. Those around him said: 'O Messenger of Allah, should we nothead toward that evil person and kill him?' He said: 'As for me, Allah has cured me, and I dislike causing evilto other people'. This is of the forbearance of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace”.Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Ja'far informed us> Abu 'Amr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hiri> Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Mawsili> Mujahid ibn Musa> Abu Usamah> Hisham ibn 'Urwa> his father> 'A'ishah,may Allah be well pleased with her, who said: “A spell of black magic was cast on the Prophet, Allah blesshim and give him peace, such that he used to imagine that he did things when he did not. He was at myplace, one day, and he began imploring Allah in earnest. Then he said: 'Did you not feel, O 'A'ishah, thatAllah has answered me about that which I have enquired?' I said: 'And what is that, O Messenger of Allah?'He said: 'Two angels came to me…', and he mentioned the whole story”. The whole story is narrated byBukhari from 'Ubayd ibn Isma'il from Abu Usamah. The same narration has different channels oftransmission in both the authentic collections of Bukhari and Muslim. The book Asbab Nuzul al-Qur'anconcludes here, and praise be to Allah, the One, the Munificent, and may Allah bless our master Muhammad,his household and all those who follow them in excellence.
قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبّ النَّاسِ- مَلِكِ النَّاسِ- إِلَـهِ النَّاسِ- مِن شَرّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ- الَّذِى يُوَسْوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ النَّاسِ- مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ-
(1. Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of An-Nas,'')
(2. "The King of An-Nas,'')
(3. "The God of An-Nas,'')
(4. "From the evil of the whisperer who withdraws.'')
(5. "Who whispers in the breasts of An-Nas.'')
(6. "Of Jinn and An-Nas.'')
These are three attributes from the attributes of the Lord, the Mighty and Majestic. They are lordship, sovereignty and divinity. Thus, He is the Lord of everything, the King of everything and the God of everything. All things are created by Him, owned by Him, and subservient to Him. Therefore, He commands whoever is seeking protection to seek refuge with the One Who has these attributes from the evil of the whisperer who withdraws. This (the whisperer) is the devil that is assigned to man. For verily, there is not any of the Children of Adam except that he has a companion that beautifies wicked deeds for him. This devil will go to any lengths to confuse and confound him. The only person who is safe is He Whom Allah protects. It is confirmed in the Sahih that he (the Prophet ) said,
«مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا قَدْ وُكِّلَ بِهِ قَرِينُهُ»
(There is not a single one of you except that his companion (a devil) has been assigned to him.) They (the Companions) said, "What about you, O Messenger of Allah'' He replied,
«نَعَمْ، إِلَّا أَنَّ اللهَ أَعَانَنِي عَلَيْهِ فَأَسْلَمَ، فَلَا يَأْمُرُنِي إِلَّا بِخَيْرٍ»
(Yes. However, Allah has helped me against him and he has accepted Islam. Thus, he only commands me to do good.) It is also confirmed in the Two Sahihs from Anas, who reported the story of Safiyyah when she came to visit the Prophet while he was performing I`tikaf, that he went out with her during the night to walk her back to her house. So, two men from the Ansar met him (on the way). When they saw the Prophet , they began walking swiftly. So, the Messenger of Allah said,
«عَلَى رِسْلِكُمَا، إِنَّهَا صَفِيَّةُ بِنْتُ حُيَيَ»
(Slow down! This is Safiyyah bint Huyay!) They said, "Glory be to Allah, O Messenger of Allah!'' He said,
«إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَجْرِي مِنِ ابْنِ آدَمَ مَجْرَى الدَّم، وَإِنِّي خَشِيتُ أَنْ يَقْذِفَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمَا شَيْئًا، أَوْ قَالَ: شَرًّا»
(Verily, Shaytan runs in the Son of Adam like the running of the blood. And verily, I feared that he might cast something into your hearts -- or he said -- evil.) Sa`id bin Jubayr reported that Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah's statement,
(The whisperer (Al-Waswas) who withdraws.) "The devil who is squatting (perched) upon the heart of the Son of Adam. So when he becomes absentminded and heedless he whispers. Then, when he remembers Allah he withdraws.'' Mujahid and Qatadah also said this. Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman reported that his father said, "It has been mentioned to me that Shaytan is Al-Waswas. He blows into the heart of the Son of Adam when he is sad and when he is happy. But when he (man) remembers Allah, Shaytan withdraws.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas;
(The whisperer.) "He is Shaytan. He whispers and then when he is obeyed, he withdraws.'' As for Allah's saying;
الَّذِى يُوَسْوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ النَّاسِ
(Who whispers in the breasts of An-Nas.) Is this specific for the Children of Adam as is apparent, or is it general, including both mankind and Jinns There are two views concerning this. This is because they (the Jinns) are also included in the usage of the word An-Nas (the people) in most cases. Ibn Jarir said, "The phrase Rijalun min Al-Jinn (Men from the Jinns) has been used in reference to them, so it is not strange for the word An-Nas to be applied to them also.'' Then Allah says,
مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ
(Of Jinn and An-Nas.) Is this explanatory of Allah's statement,
الَّذِى يُوَسْوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ النَّاسِ
(Who whispers in the breasts of An-Nas.) Then, Allah explains this by saying,
مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ
(Of Jinn and An-Nas.) This is supportive of the second view. It has also been said that Allah's saying,
مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ
(Of Jinn and An-Nas) is an explanation of who is it that whispers into the breasts of mankind from the devils of mankind and Jinns. This is similar to Allah's saying,
وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نِبِىٍّ عَدُوّاً شَيَـطِينَ الإِنْسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِى بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُوراً
o(And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies -- Shayatin among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion.) (6:112) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "A man came to the Prophet and said, `O Messenger of Allah! Sometimes I say things to myself that I would rather fall from the sky than say (aloud openly). ' The Prophet said,
«اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرٌ الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي رَدَّ كَيْدَهُ إِلَى الْوَسْوَسَةِ»
(Allah is Most Great! Allah is Most Great! All praise is due to Allah Who sent his (Shaytan's) plot back as only a whisper.)'' Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith.
This is the end of the Tafsir. All praise and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of all that exists. Every effort has been made to assure the accuracy of this publication. If, however, any errors are noticed by the reader, we would kindly request notification to be corrected in future editions.
Setan disebut Khannas, karena ia menjauh dari hati manusia ketika manusia ingat kepada Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala dan meminta perlindungan kepada-Nya agar dihindarkan darinya. Sebaliknya, ketika manusia lupa mengingat Allah, maka setan akan mendatanginya dan membisikkan hatinya. Oleh karena itu, sudah sepatutnya, manusia meminta pertolongan dan perlindungan kepada Allah Tuhan yang mengurus dan mengatur manusia, dimana semua makhluk berada di bawah pengurusan-Nya dan kepemilikan-Nya, dan tidak ada satu pun makhluk kecuali Dia yang memegang ubun-ubunnya dan berkuasa terhadapnya. Demikian pula agar ibadah sempurna, maka sangat diperlukan perlindungan Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala dari kejahatan musuh manusia, yaitu setan yang berusaha menghalangi manusia dari beribadah dan hendak menjadikan mereka sebagai pengikutnya agar sama-sama menjadi penghuni neraka.