وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا مَا قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ وَمَا ظَلَمْنَاهُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ كَانُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ
And to those who are Jews We have prohibited that which We related to you before. And We did not wrong them [thereby], but they were wronging themselves.
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(Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation…) [16:125-127]. Abu Mansur Muhammadibn Muhammad al-Mansuri informed us> 'Ali ibn 'Umar al-Hafiz> 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz> al-Hakam ibn Musa> Isma'il ibn 'Ayyash> 'Abd al-Malik ibn Abi Ghaniyyah> al-Hakam ibn 'Utaybah>Mujahid> Ibn 'Abbas who said: “When the idolaters retreated from those who were killed at the Battle ofUhud, The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, went there and saw a scene which hestrongly disliked. And he also saw Hamzah with his stomach ripped open, nose burnt and ears cut off. Hesaid: 'If it were not for the fear of causing more grief to the women or that it becomes a followed practiceafter me, I would leave him until Allah, exalted is He, resurrect him from the bellies of predatory animalsand birds. I shall kill seventy men of them [of the disbelievers of Quraysh] in revenge', He then asked for amantle to cover him with it. When he covered his face, his feet remained uncovered and so he covered themwith some Bulrush. He then placed him forward and said 'Allah is the greatest' ten times. Then, all thoseMuslim dead were brought, one by one, while the body of Hamzah was unmoved from its place, and theProphet, Allah bless him and give him peace, prayed on them. And so He performed seventy prayers onHamzah. There were seventy Muslims who died in this battle. When they were buried and finished with,Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation) up to Hiswords (Endure thou patiently (O Muhammad). Thine endurance is only by (the help of) Allah…) [16:127].And so, he was patient and did not mutilate any one”. Isma'il ibn Ibrahim al-Wa'iz informed us> Abu'l-'AbbasAhmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa al-Hafiz> 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz> Bishr ibn al-Walid al-Kindi> Salih al-Murri> Sulayman al-Taymi> Abu 'Uthman al-Nahdi> Abu Hurayrah who said: “When theProphet, Allah bless him and give him peace, got closer to Hamzah, he saw that he was dead. Nothing thathe ever saw was more painful to his heart than that sight. He said: “By Allah, I will kill seventy of them inreturn!” This verse was then revealed (If ye punish, then punish with the like of that wherewith ye wereafflicted. But if ye endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient) [16:126]. Abu Hassan al-Muzakkiinformed us> Abu'l-'Abbas Muhammad ibn Ishaq> Musa ibn Ishaq> Yahya ibn 'Abd al-Hamid al-Humani>Qays ibn Abi Layla> al-Hakam> Muqassim> Ibn 'Abbas who reported that, on the day Hamzah was killedand mutilated, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: “If I get my hand on theQuraysh I will mutilate seventy men of them. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (If ye punish, then punishwith the like of that wherewith ye were afflicted. But if ye endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient),upon which the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'I would rather be patient, OLord!' ” The commentators of the Qur'an said: “When the Muslims saw what the idolaters did to their deadat the Battle of Uhud in terms of ripping open their stomachs, cutting off their male organs and mutilatingthem in the most ugly way, they said: 'If Allah gives us a chance to get our hands on them, we will mutilatethem even worse than what they did; we shall maim them in a way that none of the Arabs did before to anyother Arab; and we shall do this and we shall do that'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, stopped at the body of his paternal uncle Hamzah with his nose and ears amputated, his male organscut off and his stomach ripped open. Hind bint 'Utbah had taken a piece of his liver, chewed it andswallowed it but her stomach could not take it and she threw it up. When the Prophet, Allah bless him andgive him peace, heard of this, he said: 'She would have never entered hell if she did digest it; Hamzah is toonoble in the sight of Allah to allow any part of his body to enter hell'. When the Messenger of Allah, Allahbless him and give him peace, saw Hamzah [lying dead and mutilated], he had never seen, before that,anything which was more painful to his heart. And so he said: 'May Allah's mercy be on you; you were, asfar as I know, someone who kept his ties of kinship and did always good deeds. Had it not been for thegrieving of those who survived of your family, it would have pleased me to leave you as you are until youare resurrected [on the Day of Judgement] from different bellies. By Allah, if Allah, exalted is He, gives methe opportunity to lay my hand on them, I will mutilate seventy men of them, for what they did to you'. ButAllah, exalted is He, revealed (If ye punish, then punish with the like of that wherewith ye were afflicted. Butif ye endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient) and so the Prophet, Allah bless him and give himpeace, said: 'I would rather be patient', and then he made amends for the oath he had made”. Here, weneed to mention how Hamzah was killed. 'Amr ibn Abi 'Amr al-Muzakki informed us> Muhammad ibn Makki>Muhammad ibn Yusuf> Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Ju'fi> Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah> Hujayn ibnal-Muthanna> 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Abi Salamah. And we were informed by Muhammad ibnIbrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya> his father> Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Thaqafi> Sa'id ibn Yahya al-Umawi> his father> Muhammad ibn Ishaq> 'Abd Allah ibn al-Fadl ibn 'Ayyash ibn Abi Rabi'ah> Sulaymanibn Yasar> Ja'far ibn 'Amr ibn Umayyah al-Damri who said: “I travelled with 'Ubayd Allah ibn 'Adiyy ibn al-Khiyar through Hums. While we were there 'Ubayd Allah said to me: 'Do you wish to go to visit Wahshiyy toask him how he killed Hamzah'. I said: 'If you want to'. A man said to us: 'You will find him in the courtyardof his house; he is a man who is always drunk. However, if he is sober, he will speak in Arabic and youmight find what you are after'. When we got to him, we greeted him and he raised his head. We said: 'Wehave come to you to tell us about your killing of Hamzah, may Allah have mercy on him'. He said: 'I willrelate to you exactly what I related to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, when heasked me about the same. I was a slave of Jubayr ibn Mut'im ibn 'Adiyy ibn Nawfal whose uncle Tu'aymahibn 'Adiyy was killed at the Battle of Badr. When the Quraysh marched toward Uhud, Jubayr ibn Mut'im saidto me: 'You are free if you kill Hamzah, Muhammad's uncle, as a revenge for the killing of my uncleTu'aymah'. I went out with them. It is to be remembered that I am an Abyssinian who is expert in throwingspears, like all Abyssinians, and I never missed my target. When the two sides met, I went looking forHamzah until I saw him in the middle of the army, like a white-and-black camel, slaughtering people with hissword such that nothing stood in his way. By Allah, I was waiting for my moment, hiding behind a rock ortree, so that he drew closer to me, when Siba' ibn 'Abd al-'Uzza passed me and went toward him. WhenHamzah, may Allah have mercy on him, saw him, he called him: 'Here, O son of a cutter of clitoris!' Then hestruck him on the head and, by Allah, he did not miss. I moved my spear about until I felt comfortable andthrew it at him. It caught him in the lower abdomen and the spear came out from his feet. He made a movetoward me and then collapsed and I left him to die. I went toward him, retrieved my spear and joined thepeople at the camp. I did not want to kill anyone else, for I only killed him to gain my freedom. When I wentback to Mecca, I was emancipated. I stayed there until Islam spread throughout it upon which I travelled toal-Ta'if. In Ta'if, they sent emissaries to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, andmentioned that he does not harm emissaries. And so I went with them to the Messenger of Allah, Allah blesshim and give him peace. When he saw me, he said: 'Are you Wahshiyy?' and when I answered in theaffirmative, he asked again: 'You are the one who killed Hamzah?' I said: 'What happened is exactly as itwas related to you'. He said: 'Could you keep your face away from me?' I left. When the Messenger of Allah,Allah bless him and give him peace, died and Musaylimah the liar emerged to the people, I thought to goand kill Musaylimah to cancel out my killing of Hamzah. I went out with people, and what happened to himis now known' ”.
وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمْنَا مَا قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَمَا ظَلَمْنَـهُمْ وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ - ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ عَمِلُواْ السُّوءَ بِجَهَـلَةٍ ثُمَّ تَابُواْ مِن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ وَأَصْلَحُواْ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِن بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
(118. And for those who are Jews, We have forbidden such things as We have mentioned to you before. And We did not wrong them, but they wronged themselves.)
(119. Then, your Lord for those who did evil out of ignorance and afterward repent and do righteous deeds - verily, after that, your Lord is Pardoning, Most Merciful.)
After mentioning that He has forbidden us to eat dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and any animal which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, and after making allowances for cases of necessity - which is part of making things easy for this Ummah, because Allah desires ease for us, not hardship - Allah then mentions what He forbade for the Jews in their laws before they were abrogated, and the restrictions, limitations and difficulties involved therein. He tells us:
وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمْنَا مَا قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ
(And for those who are Jews, We have forbidden such things as We have mentioned to you before.) meaning in Surat Al-An`am, where Allah says:
وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمْنَا كُلَّ ذِى ظُفُرٍ وَمِنَ الْبَقَرِ وَالْغَنَمِ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ شُحُومَهُمَآ إِلاَّ مَا حَمَلَتْ ظُهُورُهُمَآ
(And unto those who are Jews, We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof, and We forbade them the fat of the ox and the sheep except what adheres to their backs) Until,
(We are indeed truthful) 6:146 Hence Allah says here:
(And We did not wrong them,) meaning, in the restrictions that We imposed upon them.
وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ
(but they wronged themselves. ) meaning, they deserved that. This is like the Ayah:
فَبِظُلْمٍ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبَـتٍ أُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ وَبِصَدِّهِمْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَثِيراً
(Because of the wrong committed of those who were Jews, We prohibited certain good foods which had been lawful for them - and (also) for their hindering many from Allah's way.) (4:160) Then Allah tells us, honoring and remin- ding believers who have sinned of His blessings, that who- ever among them repents, He will accept his repentance, as He says:
ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ عَمِلُواْ السُّوءَ بِجَهَـلَةٍ
(Then, your Lord for those who did evil out of ignorance) Some of the Salaf said that this means that everyone who disobeys Allah is ignorant.
ثُمَّ تَابُواْ مِن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ وَأَصْلَحُواْ
(and afterward repent and do righteous deeds) meaning, they give up the sins they used to commit and turn to doing acts of obedience to Allah.
إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِن بَعْدِهَا
(verily, after that, your Lord is...) means, after that mistake
(...Pardoning, Most Merciful.)
Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala tidaklah mengharamkan kepada kita kecuali yang kotor sebagai karunia-Nya. Adapun orang-orang Yahudi, maka kepada mereka Allah haramkan sesuatu yang baik yang sebelumnya dihalalkan kepada mereka sebagai hukuman terhadap kezaliman mereka.
Lihat surat Al An'aam ayat 146.
Dengan mengharamkan hal itu.
Dengan mengerjakan maksiat.