فَاتَّخَذَتْ مِنْ دُونِهِمْ حِجَابًا فَأَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْهَا رُوحَنَا فَتَمَثَّلَ لَهَا بَشَرًا سَوِيًّا
And she took, in seclusion from them, a screen. Then We sent to her Our Angel, and he represented himself to her as a well-proportioned man.
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وَاذْكُرْ فِى الْكِتَـبِ مَرْيَمَ إِذِ انتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَاناً شَرْقِياً - فَاتَّخَذَتْ مِن دُونِهِم حِجَاباً فَأَرْسَلْنَآ إِلَيْهَآ رُوحَنَا فَتَمَثَّلَ لَهَا بَشَراً سَوِيّاً - قَالَتْ إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيّاً - قَالَ إِنَّمَآ أَنَاْ رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ لاًّهَبَ لَكِ غُلَـماً زَكِيّاً - قَالَتْ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لِى غُلَـمٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِى بَشَرٌ وَلَمْ أَكُ بَغِيّاً - قَالَ كَذلِكَ قَالَ رَبُّكَ هُوَ عَلَىَّ هَيِّنٌ وَلِنَجْعَلَهُ ءَايَةً لِّلْنَّاسِ وَرَحْمَةً مِّنَّا وَكَانَ أَمْراً مَّقْضِيّاً
(16. And mention in the Book, Maryam, when she withdrew in seclusion from her family to place facing east.)
(17. She placed a screen before them; then We sent to her Our Ruh, and he appeared before her in the form of a man in all respects.)
(18. She said: "Verily, I seek refuge with the Most Gracious (Allah) from you, if you do fear Allah.'')
(19. (The angel) said: "I am only a messenger from your Lord, (to announce) to you the gift of a righteous son.'')
(20. She said: "How can I have a son when no man has touched me, nor am I Baghiyya'')
(21. He said: "Thus says your Lord:
That is easy for Me (Allah). And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind and a mercy from Us (Allah), and it is a matter (already) decreed (by Allah).''')
After Allah, the Exalted, mentioned the story of Zakariyya, and that He blessed him with a righteous, purified and blessed child even in his old age while his wife was barren, He then mentions the story of Maryam. Allah informs of His granting her a child named `Isa without a father being involved (in her pregnancy). Between these two stories there is an appropriate and similar relationship. Due to their closeness in meaning, Allah mentioned them here together, as well as in Surahs Al `Imran and Al-Anbiya'. Allah has mentioned these stories to show His servants His ability, the might of His authority and that He has power over all things. Allah says,
وَاذْكُرْ فِى الْكِتَـبِ مَرْيَمَ
(And mention in the Book, Maryam,) She was Maryam bint `Imran from the family lineage of Dawud. She was from a good and wholesome family of the Children of Israel. Allah mentioned the story of her mother's pregnancy with her in Surah Al `Imran, and that she (Maryam's mother) dedicated her freely for the service of Allah. This meant that she dedicated the child (Maryam) to the service of the Masjid of the Sacred House (in Jerusalem). Thus, they (Zakariyya, Maryam's mother and Maryam) were similar in that aspect.
فَتَقَبَّلَهَا رَبُّهَا بِقَبُولٍ حَسَنٍ وَأَنبَتَهَا نَبَاتًا حَسَنًا
(So her Lord (Allah) accepted her with goodly acceptance. He made her grow in a good manner.)3:37 Thus, Maryam was raised among the Children of Israel in an honorable way. She was one of the female worshippers, well-known for her remarkable acts of worship, devotion and perseverance. She lived under the care of her brother-in-law, Zakariyya, who was a Prophet of the Children of Israel at that time. He was a great man among them, whom they would refer to in their religious matters. Zakariyya saw astonishing miracles occur from her that amazed him.
كُلَّمَا دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا زَكَرِيَّا الْمِحْرَابَ وَجَدَ عِندَهَا رِزْقًا قَالَ يمَرْيَمُ أَنَّى لَكِ هَـذَا قَالَتْ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ إنَّ اللَّهَ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَآءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ
(Every time Zakaiyya entered the Mihrab to (visit) her, he found her supplied with sustenance. He said: "O Maryam! From where have you got this'' She said, "This is from Allah.'' Verily, Allah provides to whom He wills, without limit.) 3:37 It has been mentioned that he would find her with winter fruit during the summer and summer fruit during the winter. This has already been explained in Surah Al `Imran. Then, when Allah wanted to grant her His servant and Messenger, `Isa, one of the five Great Messengers.
انتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَاناً شَرْقِياً
(she withdrew in seclusion from her family to place facing east.) 19:16 This means that she withdrew from them and secluded herself from them. She went to the eastern side of the Sacred Masjid (in Jerusalem). It is reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Verily, I am the most knowledgeable of Allah's creation of why the Christians took the east as the direction of devotional worship. They did because of Allah's statement,
انتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَاناً شَرْقِياً
(When she withdrew in seclusion from her family to a place facing east.) Therefore, they took the birthplace of `Isa as their direction of worship.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
فَاتَّخَذَتْ مِن دُونِهِم حِجَاباً
(She placed a screen before them;) This means that she hid herself from them and concealed herself. Then, Allah sent Jibril to her.
فَتَمَثَّلَ لَهَا بَشَراً سَوِيّاً
(and he appeared before her in the form of a man in all respects.) 19:17 This means that he came to her in the form of a perfect and complete man. Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj, Wahb bin Munabbih and As-Suddi all commented on Allah's statement,
فَأَرْسَلْنَآ إِلَيْهَآ رُوحَنَا
(then We sent to her Our Ruh,) "It means Jibril.''
قَالَتْ إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيّاً
(She said: "Verily, I seek refuge with the Most Gracious from you, if you do fear Allah.'') This means that when the angel (Jibril) appeared to her in the form of a man, while she was in a place secluded by herself with a partition between her and her people, she was afraid of him and thought that he wanted to rape her. Therefore, she said,
إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيّاً
(Verily, I seek refuge with the Most Gracious from you, if you do fear Allah.) She meant, "If you fear Allah,'' as a means of reminding him of Allah. This is what is legislated in defense against (evil), so that it may be repulsed with ease. Therefore, the first thing she did was try to make him fear Allah, the Mighty and Sublime. Ibn Jarir reported from `Asim that Abu Wa'il said when mentioning the story of Maryam, "She knew that the pious person would refrain (from committing evil) when she said,
إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيّاًقَالَ إِنَّمَآ أَنَاْ رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ
("Verily, I seek refuge with the Most Gracious from you, if you do fear Allah.'' He said: "I am only a messenger from your Lord...'') This means that the angel said to her in response, and in order to remove the fear that she felt within herself, "I am not what you think, but I am the messenger of your Lord.'' By this he meant, "Allah has sent me to you.'' It is said that when she mentioned the (Name of the) Most Beneficent (Ar-Rahman), Jibril fell apart and returned to his true form (as an angel). He responded, (إِنَّمَآ أَنَاْ رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ لِيَهَب لَكِ غُلَـمًا زَكِيًّا) `I am only a messenger from your Lord, to provide to you the gift of a righteous son.'
قَالَتْ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لِى غُلَـمٌ
(She said: "How can I have a son...'') This means that Maryam was amazed at this. She said, "How can I have a son'' She said this to mean, "In what way would a son be born to me when I do not have a husband and I do not commit any wicked acts (i.e. fornication)'' For this reason she said,
وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِى بَشَرٌ وَلَمْ أَكُ بَغِيّاً
(when no man has touched me, nor am I Baghiyya) The Baghiyy is a female fornicator. For this reason, a Hadith has been reported prohibiting the money earned from Baghiyy.
قَالَ كَذَلِكَ قَالَ رَبُّكَ هُوَ عَلَىَّ هَيِّنٌ
(He said: "Thus said your Lord: `That is easy for Me (Allah)...'') This means that the angel said to her in response to her question, "Verily, Allah has said that a boy will be born from you even though you do not have a husband and you have not committed any lewdness. Verily, He is Most Able to do whatever He wills.'' Due to this, he (Jibril) conveyed Allah's Words,
وَلِنَجْعَلَهُ ءَايَةً لِّلْنَّاسِ
(And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind) This means a proof and a sign for mankind of the power of their Maker and Creator, Who diversified them in their creation. He created their father, Adam, without a male (father) or female (mother). Then, He created Hawwa' (Adam's spouse) from a male (father) without a female (mother). Then, He created the rest of their progeny from male and female, except `Isa. He caused `Isa to be born from a female without a male. Thus, Allah completed the four types of creation (of the human being), which proves the perfection of His power and the magnificence of His authority. There is no god worthy of worship except Him and there is no true Lord other than Him. Concerning Allah's statement,
(and a mercy from Us,) This means, "We will make this boy a mercy from Allah and a Prophet from among the Prophets. He will call to the worship of Allah and monotheistic belief in Him. This is as Allah, the Exalted, said in another Ayah,
إِذْ قَالَتِ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ يمَرْيَمُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُبَشِّرُكِ بِكَلِمَةٍ مِّنْهُ اسْمُهُ الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ وَجِيهًا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالاٌّخِرَةِ وَمِنَ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ - وَيُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ فِى الْمَهْدِ وَكَهْلاً وَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ
((Remember) when the angels said: "O Maryam! Verily, Allah gives you the good news of a Word from Him, his name will be Al-Masih, `Isa, the son of Maryam, held in honor in this world and in the Hereafter, and will be one of those who are near to Allah. And he will speak to the people, in the cradle and in manhood, and he will be one of the righteous.) 3:45-46 This means that he will call to the worship of his Lord in his cradle and while and adult. Concerning His statement,
وَكَانَ أَمْراً مَّقْضِيّاً
(and it is a matter (already) decreed (by Allah).) This is the completion of Jibril's dialogue with Maryam. He informed her that this matter was preordained by Allah's power and will. Muhammad bin Ishaq said,
وَكَانَ أَمْراً مَّقْضِيّاً
(and it is a matter (already) decreed (by Allah).) "This means that Allah determined to do this, so there is no avoiding it.''