وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِنْ عِنْدِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ ۖ فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
Many of the People of the Scripture wish they could turn you back to disbelief after you have believed, out of envy from themselves [even] after the truth has become clear to them. So pardon and overlook until Allah delivers His command. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.
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(Many of the people of the Scripture long to make you disbelievers after your belief…) [2:109]. Said Ibn‘Abbas: “This verse was revealed about a group of Jews who said to the Muslims after the Battle of Uhud:‘Could you not see what has happened to you? If you were truly following the truth, you would not havebeen defeated. Revert, therefore, to our religion; it is far better for you’ ”. Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Farisiinformed us>Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Fadl> Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan> Muhammad ibnYahya> Abu’l-Yaman> Shu‘ayb> al-Zuhri> ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Ka‘b ibn Malik> his father whoreported that Ka‘b al-Ashraf the Jew was a poet who used his poetry to satirize the Prophet, Allah bless himand give him peace, and incite the disbelievers of Quraysh against him. The idolaters and Jews of Medinaalso used to seriously harm the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and his Companionsupon their arrival to Medina. Allah, exalted is He, commanded his Prophet to endure all that and to forgivethem. And it is about them that was revealed (Many of the people of the Scripture long to make youdisbelievers after your belief…) up to His saying (Forgive and be indulgent (toward them) until Allah givecommand…).
وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم مِن بَعْدِ إِيمَـنِكُمْ كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِّنْ عِنْدِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ فَاعْفُواْ وَاصْفَحُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ - وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَءَاتُواْ الزَّكَوةَ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُواْ لأَنْفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
(109. Many of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their own selves, even after the truth (that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unto them. But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command. Verily, Allah is able to do all things.)
(110. And perform the Salah and give the Zakah, and whatever of good you send forth for yourselves before you, you shall find it with Allah. Certainly, Allah is the Seer of what you do.)
Allah warned His believing servants against following the ways of the People of Book, who publicly and secretly harbor emnity and hatred for the believers, and who envy the believers, while they recognize the virtue of the believers and their Prophet . Allah also commanded His believing servants to forgive them and to be patient with them, until Allah delivers His aid and victory to them. Allah commanded the believers to perform the prayer perfectly, to pay the Zakah and He encouraged them to preserve the practice of these righteous deeds. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Abdullah bin Ka`b bin Malik said that Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf, who was a Jew and a poet, used to criticize the Prophet in his poems, so Allah revealed,
وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم
(Many of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that they could turn you away..) regarding his matter. Also, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "An unlettered Messenger came to the People of the Scriptures confirming what they have in their own Books about the Messengers and the Ayat of Allah. He also believes in all of this, just as they believe in it. Yet, they rejected the Prophet out of disbelief, envy and transgression. This is why Allah said,
كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِّنْ عِنْدِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ
(out of envy from their own selves, even after the truth (that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unto them). Allah said that after He illuminated the truth for them, such that they were not ignorant of any of it, yet their envy made them deny the Prophet . Thus Allah criticized, chastised and denounced them.'' Allah legislated the characteristics that His Prophet and the believers should adhere to: belief, faith and accepting what Allah revealed to them and to those before them out of His generosity and tremendous kindness. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that,
مِّنْ عِنْدِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ
(from their own selves) means, "of their making.'' Also, Abu Al-`Aliyah said that,
مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ
(even after the truth (that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unto them) means, "After it became clear that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah whom they find written of in the Torah and the Injil. They denied him in disbelief and transgression because he was not one of them.'' Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said similarly. Allah said,
فَاعْفُواْ وَاصْفَحُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ
(But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command.) this is similar to His saying;
وَلَتَسْمَعُنَّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ أَذًى كَثِيراً
(And you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you (Jews and Christians) and from those who ascribe partners to Allah) (3: 186). `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah's statement,
فَاعْفُواْ وَاصْفَحُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ
(But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command.) was abrogated by the Ayah,
فَاقْتُلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ
(Then kill the Mushrikin wherever you find them) (9:5), and,
قَـتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ
(Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day) (9:29) until,
(And feel themselves subdued) (9:29). Allah's pardon for the disbelievers was repealed.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qatadah and As-Suddi said similarly: It was abrogated by the Ayah of the sword." (Mentioned above). The Ayah,
حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ
(till Allah brings His command.) gives further support for this view. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying that the Messenger of Allah and his Companions used to forgive the disbelievers and the People of the Book, just as Allah commanded in His statement,
فَاعْفُواْ وَاصْفَحُواْ حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
(But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command. Verily, Allah is able to do all things). The Messenger of Allah used to forgive them and was patient with them as Allah ordered him, until Allah allowed fighting them. Then Allah destroyed those who He decreed to be killed among the strong men of Quraysh, by the Prophet's forces. The chain of narration for this text is Sahih, but I did not see its wordings in the six collections of Hadith, although the basis of it is in the Two Sahihs, narrated from Usamah bin Zayd.
وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَءَاتُواْ الزَّكَوةَ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُواْ لأَنْفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّهِ
(And perform the Salah and give the Zakah, and whatever of good you send forth for yourselves before you, you shall find it with Allah). Allah encouraged the believers to busy themselves in performing deeds that would bring them benefit and reward on the Day of Resurrection, such as prayer and paying Zakah. This way, they will gain Allah's aid in this life and on a Day when the witnesses testify,
يَوْمَ لاَ يَنفَعُ الظَّـلِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ وَلَهُمُ الْلَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ
(The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to the Zalimin (wrongdoers). Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode (i.e. painful torment in Hell-fire)) (40:52). This is why Allah said,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
(Certainly, Allah sees what you do), meaning, that He is never unaware of the deeds of any person, nor will these deeds be lost by Him. Whether deeds are righteous or evil, Allah will award each according to what he or she deserves based on their deeds.
Karena rasa dengki dalam diri mereka, mereka berupaya mencari cara agar dapat mengembalikan umat Islam kepada kekafiran, di antara cara mereka disebutkan di surat Ali Imran: 72-73, maka Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala memerintahkan kaum mukmin untuk membalas sikap ini dengan memaafkan dan membiarkan mereka sampai Allah mendatangkan keputusan-Nya.
Abusy Syaikh meriwayatkan dalam kitab Al Akhlak dari Usamah bin Zaid, bahwa Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam berada di atas himar (keledai), lalu Beliau bersabda kepada Sa'ad, "Tidakkah kamu mendengar Abul Habab âyakni Abdullah bin Ubay-, ia berkata begini dan begitu?" Sa'ad bin Ubadah berkata, "Maafkanlah dia dan biarkanlah", maka Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam memaafkannya. Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam dan para sahabat biasa memaafkan Ahli Kitab dan kaum musyrik, hingga Allah Azza wa Jalla menurunkan ayat, "Fa'fuu wash-fahuuâ¦dst."(Hadits ini para perawinya tsiqah. Ibnu Abi 'Ashim adalah seorang hafizh besar, biografinya ada dalam Tadzkiratul Huffaz juz 2 hal. 640, sedangkan selebihnya ada dalam Tahdzibut Tahdzib. Hadits tersebut dalam kitab shahih melalui jalan Syu'aib bin Abi Hamzah dengan sanad ini, akan tetapi tidak ada di sana sebab turunnya. Demikian juga seperti ini dalam Tafsir Ibnu Abi Hatim seperti yang disebutkan dalam Tafsir Ibnu Katsir juz 1 hal. 135)
Maksudnya: Izin memerangi dan mengusir orang Yahudi. Dengan demikian, terobatilah rasa sakit di hati yang menimpa kaum mukmin selama ini.