الَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ لَا يُتْبِعُونَ مَا أَنْفَقُوا مَنًّا وَلَا أَذًى ۙ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah and then do not follow up what they have spent with reminders [of it] or [other] injury will have their reward with their Lord, and there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.
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(Those who spend their wealth for the cause of Allah…) [2:262]. Said al-Kalbi: “This verse was revealedabout 'Uthman ibn 'Affan and 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf. As for 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf, he went and gavethe Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, four thousand silver coins to distribute incharity. 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf said to him: 'I have eight thousand silver coins; I have kept four thousandfor me and my family and I loan these four thousands to my Lord'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless himand give him peace, said to him: 'May Allah bless for you that which you have kept and that which you havegiven'. And as for 'Uthman, may Allah be well pleased with him, he said: 'Upon me is the equipment ofanyone who has no equipment for the Battle of Tabuk'. And so he equipped the Muslims with one thousandcamels with their hunches and saddle blankets and also gave to charity a well that he owned. This verse wasrevealed about him”. Said Abu Sa'id al-Khudri: “I saw the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, raising his hand and praying for 'Uthman, saying: 'O Lord! Be well pleased with 'Uthman ibn 'Affan forI am well pleased with him'. His hands remained raised until the break of dawn. Allah, exalted is He,revealed about him (Those who spend their wealth for the cause of Allah…)”.
الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْولَهُمْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ لاَ يُتْبِعُونَ مَآ أَنْفَقُواْ مَنّا وَلا أَذًى لَّهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبّهِمْ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ قَوْلٌ مَّعْرُوفٌ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ خَيْرٌ مّن صَدَقَةٍ يَتْبَعُهَآ أَذًى وَاللَّهُ غَنِىٌّ حَلِيمٌ يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءامَنُواْ لاَ تُبْطِلُواْ صَدَقَـتِكُم بِالْمَنّ وَالاْذَى كَالَّذِى يُنفِقُ مَالَهُ رِئَآء النَّاسِ وَلاَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاْخِرِ فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ صَفْوَانٍ عَلَيْهِ تُرَابٌ فَأَصَابَهُ وَابِلٌ فَتَرَكَهُ صَلْدًا لاَّ يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى شَىْء مّمَّا كَسَبُواْ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَـفِرِينَ
(262. Those who spend their wealth in the cause of Allah, and do not follow up their gifts with reminders of their generosity or with injury, their reward is with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.)
(263. Kind words and forgiving of faults are better than Sadaqah (charity) followed by injury. And Allah is Rich (free of all needs) and He is Most Forbearing.)
(264. O you who believe! Do not render in vain your Sadaqah (charity) by reminders of your generosity or by injury, like him who spends his wealth to be seen of men, and he does not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day. His likeness is the likeness of a smooth rock on which is a little dust; on it falls heavy rain which leaves it bare. They are not able to do anything with what they have earned. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.)
Allah praises those who spend from their money in His cause, and then refrain from reminding those who received the charity of that fact, whether these hints take the form of words or actions. Allah's statement,
(or with injury), indicates that they do not cause harm to those whom they gave the charity to, for this harm will only annul the charity. Allah next promised them the best rewards for this good deed,
لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ
(their reward is with their Lord), indicating that Allah Himself will reward them for these righteous actions. Further,
وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ
(On them shall be no fear) regarding the horrors of the Day of Resurrection,
وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
(nor shall they grieve) regarding the offspring that they leave behind and the adornment and delights of this world. They will not feel sorry for this, because they will acquire what is far better for them. Allah then said,
(Kind words) meaning, compassionate words and a supplication for Muslims,
(and forgiving) meaning, forgiving an injustice that took the form of actions or words,
خَيْرٌ مِّن صَدَقَةٍ يَتْبَعُهَآ أَذًى
(are better than Sadaqah (charity) followed by injury.)
(And Allah is Rich) not needing His creation,
(Most Forbearing) forgives, releases and pardons them. There are several Hadiths that prohibit reminding people of acts of charity. For instance, Muslim recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«ثَلَاثَةٌ لَا يُكَلِّمُهُمُ اللهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، وَلَا يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِم، وَلَا يُزَكِّيهِمْ، وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ: الْمَنَّانُ بِمَا أَعْطَى، وَالْمُسْبِلُ إِزَارَهُ، وَالْمُنَفِّقُ سِلْعَتَهُ بِالْحَلِفِ الْكَاذِب»
(Three persons whom Allah shall neither speak to on the Day of Resurrection nor look at nor purify, and they shall receive a painful torment: he who reminds (the people) of what he gives away, he who lengthens his clothes below the ankles and he who swears an oath while lying, to sell his merchandise.) This is why Allah said,
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تُبْطِلُواْ صَدَقَـتِكُم بِالْمَنِّ وَالاٌّذَى
(O you who believe! Do not render in vain your Sadaqah (charity) by reminders of your generosity or by injury) stating that the charity will be rendered in vain if it is followed by harm or reminders. In this case, the reward of giving away charity is not sufficient enough to nullify the harm and reminders. Allah then said,
كَالَّذِى يُنفِقُ مَالَهُ رِئَآءَ النَّاسِ
(like him who spends his wealth to be seen of men) meaning, "Do not nullify your acts of charity by following them with reminders and harm, just like the charity of those who give it to show off to people.'' The boasting person pretends to give away charity for Allah's sake, but in reality seeks to gain people's praise and the reputation of being kind or generous, or other material gains of this life. All the while, he does not think about Allah or gaining His pleasure and generous rewards, and this is why Allah said,
وَلاَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ
(and he does not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day.) Allah next set the example of whoever gives charity to show off. Ad-Dahhak commented that the example fits one who follows his acts of charity with reminders or harm. Allah said,
فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ صَفْوَانٍ
(His likeness is the likeness of Safwan) where Safwan, from is Safwanah, meaning `the smooth rocks,'
عَلَيْهِ تُرَابٌ فَأَصَابَهُ وَابِلٌ
(on which is little dust; on it falls a Wabil) meaning, heavy rain,
(which leaves it bare.) This Ayah means that heavy rain left the Safwan completely barren of dust. Such is the case with Allah's action regarding the work of those who show off, as their deeds are bound to vanish and disappear, even though people think that these deeds are as plentiful as specks of dust. So Allah said,
لاَّ يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى شَىْءٍ مِّمَّا كَسَبُواْ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَـفِرِينَ
(They are not able to do anything with what they have earned. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.)
Misalnya untuk jihad dan protek-proyek kebaikan lainnya.
Yakni menyebut-nyebut pemberiannya seperti mengatakan "Saya telah berbuat baik kepadamu dan telah menutupi kekuranganmu" atau menghitung-hitung pemberiannya, atau meminta orang yang diberi sedekah untuk menyebutkan pemberiannya atau bersikap sombong terhadap penerima karena pemberiannya.
Yakni terkesan bahwa orang yang diberi itu telah berhutang budi kepadanya. Menyebut-nyebut dilarang bahkan merusak sedekah adalah karena sesungguhnya nikmat yang ada adalah pemberian Allah Ta'ala, demikian juga ihsannya.
Terhadap hal yang akan datang di akhirat nanti.
Terhadap sesuatu yang telah luput di dunia.