يُؤْتِي الْحِكْمَةَ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَنْ يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ
He gives wisdom to whom He wills, and whoever has been given wisdom has certainly been given much good. And none will remember except those of understanding.
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يُؤْتِى الْحِكْمَةَ مَن يَشَآءُ وَمَن يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِىَ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلاَّ أُوْلُواْ الأَلْبَـبِ
(267.O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein. And know that Allah is Rich (free of all needs), and worthy of all praise.)
(268. Shaytan threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahsha' (evil deeds) whereas Allah promises you forgiveness from Himself and bounty, and Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.)
(269. He grants Hikmah to whom He wills, and he, to whom Hikmah is granted, is indeed granted abundant good. But none remember (will receive admonition) except men of understanding.)
Allah commands His believing servants to spend in charity, as Ibn `Abbas stated, from the pure, honest money that they earned and from the fruits and vegetables that He has grown for them in the land. Ibn `Abbas said, "Allah commanded them to spend from the purest, finest and best types of their money and prohibited spending from evil and dishonest money, because Allah is pure and good and only accepts that which is pure and good.'' This is why Allah said,
وَلاَ تَيَمَّمُواْ الْخَبِيثَ
(and do not aim at that which is bad) meaning, filthy (impure) money,
مِنْهُ تُنفِقُونَ وَلَسْتُم بِأَخِذِيهِ
(to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it) meaning, "If you were given this type, you would not take it, except if you tolerate the deficiency in it. Verily, Allah is far Richer than you, He is in no need of this money, so do not give, for His sake, what you would dislike for yourselves.'' It was reported that,
وَلاَ تَيَمَّمُواْ الْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنفِقُونَ
(and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it) means, "Do not spend from the dishonest, impure money instead of the honest, pure money.'' Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Bara' bin `Azib commented on Allah's statement,
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَنفِقُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـتِ مَا كَسَبْتُمْ وَمِمَّآ أَخْرَجْنَا لَكُم مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ وَلاَ تَيَمَّمُواْ الْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنفِقُونَ
(O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it,) that it was revealed about the Ansar. When the season for harvesting date-trees would start, the Ansar would collect ripe-date branches from their gardens and hang them on a rope erected between two pillars in the Masjid of the Messenger of Allah. The poor emigrant Companions would eat from these dates. However, some of them (Ansar) would also add lesser type of dates in between ripe-date branches, thinking they are allowed to do so. Allah revealed this Ayah about those who did this,
وَلاَ تَيَمَّمُواْ الْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنفِقُونَ
(and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,
وَلَسْتُم بِأَخِذِيهِ إِلاَ أَن تُغْمِضُواْ فِيهِ
(you would not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein) means, "If you had a right on someone who would pay you less than what you gave them, you would not agree until you require more from them to make up the difference. This is why Allah said,
إِلاَ أَن تُغْمِضُواْ فِيهِ
(save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein) meaning, `How do you agree for Me what you do not agree for yourselves, while I have a right to the best and most precious of your possessions'' Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir recorded this Hadith and Ibn Jarir added, "And this is the meaning of Allah's statement,
لَن تَنَالُواْ الْبِرَّ حَتَّى تُنفِقُواْ مِمَّا تُحِبُّونَ
(By no means shall you attain Al-Birr, unless you spend of that which you love)'' 4:92 Allah said next,
وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ
(And know that Allah is Rich (free of all needs), and worthy of all praise) meaning, "Although Allah commanded you to give away the purest of your money in charity, He is far Richer from needing your charity, but the purpose is that the distance between the rich and the poor becomes less.'' Similarly, Allah said,
لَن يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلاَ دِمَآؤُهَا وَلَـكِن يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَى مِنكُمْ
(It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, but it is piety from you that reaches Him) 22:37. Allah is Rich and free of needing anything from any of His creatures, while all of His creatures stand in need of Him. Allah's bounty encompassing, and what He has never ends. Therefore, whoever gives away good and pure things in charity, let him know that Allah is the Most Rich, His favor is enormous and He is Most Generous, Most Compassionate; and He shall reward him for his charity and multiply it many times. So who would lend to He Who is neither poor nor unjust, Who is worthy of all praise in all His actions, statements, and decisions, of Whom there is neither a deity worthy of worship except Him, nor a Lord other than Him
الشَّيْطَـنُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَآءِ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلاً وَاللَّهُ وَسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
(Shaytan threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahsha'; whereas Allah promises you forgiveness from Himself and bounty, and Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«إِنَّ لِلشَّيْطَانِ لَمَّةً بِابْنِ آدَمَ، وَلِلْمَلَكِ لَمَّةً، فَأَمَّا لَمَّةُ الشَّيطَانِ فَإِيعَادٌ بِالشَّرِّ، وَتَكْذِيبٌ بِالْحَقِّ، وَ أَمَّا لَمَّةُ الْمَلَكِ فَإِيعَادٌ بِالْخَيْرِ، وَتَصْدِيقٌ بِالْحَقِّ، فَمَنْ وَجَدَ ذَلِكَ فَلْيَعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ مِنَ اللهِ، فَلْيَحْمَدِ اللهَ، وَمَنْ وَجَدَ الْأُخْرَى فَلْيَتَعَوَّذْ مِنَ الشَّيْطَان»
(Shaytan has an effect on the son of Adam, and the angel also has an effect. As for the effect of Shaytan, it is by his threatening with evil repercussions and rejecting the truth. As for the effect of the angel, it is by his promise of a good end and believing in the truth. Whoever finds the latter, let him know that it is coming from Allah and let him thank Allah for it. Whoever finds the former, let him seek refuge - with Allah - from Shaytan.) The Prophet then recited,
الشَّيْطَـنُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَآءِ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلاً
(Shaytan threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahsha'; whereas Allah promises you forgiveness from Himself and bounty) This is the narration that At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i collected in the book of Tafsir in their Sunan collections. Allah said,
الشَّيْطَـنُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ
(Shaytan threatens you with poverty), so that you hold on to whatever you have and refrain from spending it in Allah's pleasure.
(And orders you to commit Fahsha'), meaning, "Shaytan forbids you from spending in charity because of the false fear of becoming poor, and he encourages evil deeds, sins, indulging in what is prohibited, and immoral conduct.'' Allah said,
وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ
(Whereas Allah promises you forgiveness from Himself) instead of the evil that Shaytan enjoins on you,
(And Bounty) as opposed to the poverty that Shaytan frightens you with,
وَاللَّهُ وَسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
(And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.)
يُؤْتِى الْحِكْمَةَ مَن يَشَآءُ
(He grants Hikmah to whom He wills.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "That is knowledge of the Qur'an. For instance, the abrogating and the abrogated, what is plain and clear and what is not as plain and clear, what it allows, and what it does not allow, and its parables.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
«لَا حَسَدَ إِلَّا فِي اثْنَتَيْنِ: رَجُلٌ آتَاهُ اللهُ مَالًا فَسَلَّطَهُ عَلَى هَلَكَتِهِ فِي الْحَقِّ، وَرَجُلٌ آتَاهُ اللهُ حِكْمَةً فَهُوَ يَقْضِي بِهَا وَيُعَلِّمُهَا»
(There is no envy except in two instances: a person whom Allah has endowed with wealth and he spends it righteously, and a person whom Allah has given Hikmah and he judges by it and teaches it to others.) This was also collected by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah. Allah's statement,
وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلاَّ أُوْلُواْ الأَلْبَـبِ
(But none remember (will receive admonition) except men of understanding.) means, "Those who will benefit from the advice are those who have sound minds and good comprehension with which they understand the words (of advice and reminder) and their implications.''
Hikmah ialah kemampuan untuk memahami rahasia syari'at agama. Ada pula yang menafsirkan "pemahaman yang dalam tentang Al Qur'an dan As Sunnah" dan ada yang menafsirkan "tepat dalam berkata dan bertindak." Yang lain berpendapat bahwa hikmah adalah ilmu yang bermanfaat yang membuahkan amal serta mengetahui rahasia-rahasia syari'at.
Karena hal itu dapat membawanya kepada kebahagiaan di dunia dan di akhirat. Oleh karena itu, warisan para nabi adalah ilmu, bukan harta atau lainnya. Seorang yang memiliki hikmah dapat menyempurnakan jati dirinya, ia mengetahui yang hak dan mengetahui maksudnya. Dalam bertindak, ia mengerjakan yang baik dan meninggalkan yang buruk. Dengan demikian, muncullah sikap tepat baik dalam berbicara maupun dalam bertindak serta dapat memposisikan sesuatu pada tempatnya baik bagi dirinya maupun orang lain. Tanpa yang demikian, seseorang tidak mungkin dapat sempurna.
Syaikh As Sa'diy berkata: "Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala menciptakan hamba-hamba-Nya di atas fitrah beribadah kepada-Nya, mencintai yang baik dan mencari yang hak. Allah mengutus para rasul untuk mengingatkan mereka apa yang sebelumnya terpendam dalam fitrah dan akal mereka serta menerangkan apa saja yang belum mereka ketahui. Ketika itu, manusia terbagi menjadi dua golongan; golongan yang menyambut seruan mereka (para rasul) sehingga mereka ingat terhadap hal yang memberi mereka manfaat, mereka pun mengerjakannya, dan terhadap hal yang memadharatkan mereka, maka mereka tinggalkan. Mereka inilah orang-orang yang memiliki daya pikir dan akal yang sempurna. Sedangkan golongan yang satu lagi tidak menyambut seruan mereka, bahkan mereka lebih memilih perkara rusak yang datang menghampiri fitrah mereka, mereka pun meninggalkan ketaatan kepada Rabbu manusia, oleh karena itu mereka bukanlah orang-orang yang berakal."