وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ حَرْفٍ ۖ فَإِنْ أَصَابَهُ خَيْرٌ اطْمَأَنَّ بِهِ ۖ وَإِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ فِتْنَةٌ انْقَلَبَ عَلَىٰ وَجْهِهِ خَسِرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَانُ الْمُبِينُ
And of the people is he who worships Allah on an edge. If he is touched by good, he is reassured by it; but if he is struck by trial, he turns on his face [to the other direction]. He has lost [this] world and the Hereafter. That is what is the manifest loss.
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(And among mankind is he who worshippeth Allah upon a narrow marge…) [22:11]. The commentators ofthe Qur'an said: “This verse was revealed about some Bedouins who used to travel from the desert toMedina to see the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. If one of them had, during suchvisits, good health, or his mare gave birth to seemly foals or his wife gave him a boy, such that his wealthand cattle multiplied - he would be pleased and well contended. He would say: 'Since I embraced thisreligion, I have not seen anything but good'. If, on the other hand, he fell ill, during such visits, or his wifegave birth to a girl, or his foals were stillborn, such that he lost his wealth, or such that the payment of almsto him was delayed - the devil would come to him and whisper: 'Since you embraced this religion, you havenot gained anything but evil', and thus he would renounce his religion. Allah, exalted is, therefore, revealed(And among mankind is he who worshippeth Allah upon a narrow marge)”. 'Atiyyah reported that Abu Sa'idal-Khudri said: “A Jewish man who had embraced Islam lost his sight, wealth and children. He thought thatIslam was ill-omened and so he went to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said:'Discharge me!' The Prophet said: 'you do not get discharged from Islam'. The man said: 'I did not gain anygood from this religion of mine!' The Prophet said: 'O Jew, Islam smelts men as fire smelts the dross of iron,silver and gold'. Then the verse (And among mankind is he who worshippeth Allah upon a narrow marge)was revealed”.
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ عَلَى حَرْفٍ فَإِنْ أَصَابَهُ خَيْرٌ اطْمَأَنَّ بِهِ وَإِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ فِتْنَةٌ انْقَلَبَ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ خَسِرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالاٌّخِرَةَ ذلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَنُ الْمُبِينُ - يَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لاَ يَضُرُّهُ وَمَا لاَ يَنفَعُهُ ذلِكَ هُوَ الضَّلَـلُ الْبَعِيدُ - يَدْعُو لَمَنْ ضَرُّهُ أَقْرَبُ مِن نَّفْعِهِ لَبِئْسَ الْمَوْلَى وَلَبِئْسَ الْعَشِيرُ
(11. And among mankind is he who worships Allah as it were upon the edge: if good befalls him, he is content therewith; but if a Fitnah strikes him, he turns back on his face. He loses both this world and the Hereafter. That is the evident loss.)
(12. He calls besides Allah unto that which can neither harm him nor profit him. That is a straying far away.)
(13. He calls unto him whose harm is nearer than his profit; certainly an evil Mawla and certainly an evil
Mujahid, Qatadah and others said:
(upon the edge) means, in doubt. Others said that it meant on the edge, such as on the edge or side of a mountain, i.e., (this person) enters Islam on the edge, and if he finds what he likes he will continue, otherwise he will leave. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said:
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ عَلَى حَرْفٍ
(And among mankind is he who worships Allah as it were upon the edge.) "People would come to Al-Madinah to declare their Islam and if their wives gave birth to sons and their mares gave birth to foals, they would say, `This is a good religion,' but if their wives and their mares did not give birth, they would say, `This is a bad religion.''' Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "One of them would come to Al-Madinah, which was a land that was infected with a contagious disease. If he remained healthy there, and his mare foaled and his wife gave birth to a boy, he would be content, and would say, `I have not experienced anything but good since I started to follow this religion.''
وَإِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ فِتْنَةٌ
(but if a Fitnah strikes him), Fitnah here means affliction, i.e., if the disease of Al-Madinah befalls him, and his wife gives birth to a babe girl and charity is delayed in coming to him, the Shaytan comes to him and says: `By Allah, since you started to follow this religion of yours, you have experienced nothing but bad things,' and this is the Fitnah.'' This was also mentioned by Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ibn Jurayj and others among the Salaf when explaining this Ayah. Mujahid said, concerning the Ayah:
انْقَلَبَ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ
(he turns back on his face.) "(This means), he becomes an apostate and a disbeliever.''
خَسِرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالاٌّخِرَةَ
(He loses both this world and the Hereafter.) means, he does not gain anything in this world. As for the Hereafter, he has disbelieved in Allah the Almighty, so he will be utterly doomed and humiliated. So Allah says:
ذلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَنُ الْمُبِينُ
(That is the evident loss.), i.e., the greatest loss and the losing deal.
يَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لاَ يَضُرُّهُ وَمَا لاَ يَنفَعُهُ
(He calls besides Allah unto that which can neither harm him nor profit him.) means, the idols, rivals, and false gods which he calls upon for help, support and provision -- they can neither benefit him nor harm him.
ذلِكَ هُوَ الضَّلاَلُ الْبَعِيدُ
(That is a straying far away.)
يَدْعُو لَمَنْ ضَرُّهُ أَقْرَبُ مِن نَّفْعِهِ
(He calls unto him whose harm is nearer than his profit;) means, he is more likely to harm him than benefit him in this world, and in the Hereafter he will most certainly cause him harm.
لَبِئْسَ الْمَوْلَى وَلَبِئْسَ الْعَشِيرُ
(certainly an evil Mawla and certainly an evil `Ashir!) Mujahid said, "This means the idols.'' The meaning is: "How evil a friend is this one upon whom he calls instead of Allah as a helper and supporter.''
(and certainly an evil `Ashir!) means the one with whom one mixes and spends one's time.
Yaitu mereka yang lemah iman, di mana iman tidak masuk dan menyatu ke dalam hatinya, bahkan masuk hanya karena takut atau hanya karena kebiasaan yang jika tersentuh cobaan langsung goyang.
Maksudnya, tidak dengan penuh keyakinan. Orang yang berada di atas keraguan diumpamakan seperti berada di tepi gunung karena tidak kokohnya.
Seperti kesehatan dan keselamatan pada diri dan hartanya atau hartanya banyak dan tidak mendapatkan bahaya.
Karena harta itu, bukan karena imannya.
Seperti sakit yang menimpa dirinya dan kebinasaan pada hartanya atau memperoleh hal yang tidak disukainya dan hilang sesuatu yang dicintainya.
Maksudnya, kembali kafir lagi.
Dengan tidak memperoleh apa yang diharapkannya dari dunia ini selain bagian yang telah ditetapkan untuknya.
Diharamkan masuk surga dan tempatnya di neraka.