يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنْتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُوا ۚ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا
O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing through [a place of prayer], until you have washed [your whole body]. And if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and find no water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and your hands [with it]. Indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving.
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(O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken…) [4:43]. This was revealed aboutsome people who were Companions of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. Theywere in the habit of drinking wine and then going to pray while still drunk. Because of this they did not knowhow many units of prayer they performed or what they said in their prayers. Abu Bakr al-Asfahani informedus> Abu’l-Shaykh al-Hafiz> Abu Yahya> Sahl Ibn ‘Uthman> Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Afriqi> ‘Ata’> Abu ‘Abdal-Rahman who said: “One day, ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf prepared food and invited some Companions of theProphet, Allah bless him and give him peace. They ate and drank and when the time for the Maghrib prayerwas due they stood up to pray. One of them stepped forward to lead the prayer. He recited (Say: Odisbelievers…) [Surah 109] but did not recite correctly, and so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (O ye whobelieve! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken, till ye know that which ye utter…)”. (…and if yefind not water, then go to high clean soil…) [4:43]. Abu ‘Abd Allah ibn Abi Ishaq informed us> Abu ‘Amr ibnMatar> Ibrahim ibn ‘Ali al-Dhuhli> Yahya ibn Yahya> Malik ibn Anas> ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Qasim> hisfather> ‘A’ishah who said: “We travelled with the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, inone of his travels and when we reached al-Bayda’ or Dhat al-Jaysh I dropped my necklace and so theMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give peace, set camp to look for it and people camped with him too,except that that area did not have water and they did not carry water with them either. So people went toAbu Bakr and said: ‘Did you see what ‘A’ishah has done? She made the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless himand give him peace, camp along with people when they have no water with them and this area does nothave any water?’ And so Abu Bakr came. He found the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, sleeping with his head on my thigh. He said: ‘You have held back the Messenger of Allah and peoplewith him when this area has no water and people have no water with them either’. Abu Bakr kept rebukingme, saying whatever Allah willed him to say all while poking me with his hand in my waist. The only thingthat prevented me from moving was the head of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, on my thigh. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, slept until dawn and whenhe woke up, he had no water. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed the verse on dry ablution (Tayammum).Usayd ibn Huday, who was one of the leaders, said then: ‘This is not your first blessing, O household of AbuBakr’. When the camel which I was riding was made to rise, we found my necklace beneath it”. This wasnarrated by al-Bukhari from Isma‘il ibn Abi Uways and also by Muslim from Yahya ibn Yahya, and both IbnAbi Uways and Ibn Yahya related it from Malik. Abu Muhammad al-Farisi informed us> Muhammad ibn ‘AbdAllah ibn al-Fadl> Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Hafiz> Muhammad ibn Yahya> Ya‘qub ibn Ibrahimibn Sa‘d> his father> Abu Salih> Ibn Shihab> ‘Ubayd Allah ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Utbah> Ibn ‘Abbas> ‘Ammaribn Yasir who said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, camped once in Dhat al-Jaysh. He had with him then ‘A’ishah his wife who dropped a necklace made of gems from Dhafar and so heheld back people to look for it and they remained there until dawn. Because people did not have water withthem, Abu Bakr got very angry with her. Then Allah, exalted is He, revealed to his Messenger, Allah blesshim and give him peace, the story of purifying oneself with clean soil. The Muslims got up, struck the soilwith their hands and then lifted them up without retaining any soil on them and wiped their faces and handsup to the shoulders as well as the palms of their hands up to the armpits”. Said al-Zuhri: “We heard that AbuBakr then said to ‘A’ishah: ‘By Allah, I know that you are blessed’ ”.
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَـرَى حَتَّى تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلاَ جُنُباً إِلاَّ عَابِرِى سَبِيلٍ حَتَّى تَغْتَسِلُواْ وَإِنْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَآءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنْكُمْ مِّن الْغَآئِطِ أَوْ لَـمَسْتُمُ النِّسَآءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَآءً فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوّاً غَفُوراً
(43. O you who believe! Do not approach Salah while you are in a druken state until you know what you are saying, nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through, until you bathe (your entire body), and if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes from the Gha'it (toilet), or from Lamastum (touching) women, but you do not find water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth, rubbing your faces and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.)
Allah forbade His believing servants from praying while drunk, for one does not know the meaning of what he is saying in that state, and He forbade them from attending the Masjids while sexually impure, except when one is just passing through the Masjid from one door to another. This Ayah was revealed before alcohol consumption was completely prohibited, as evident by the Hadith that we mentioned in Surat Al-Baqarah when we explained Allah's statement,
يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ
(They ask you about alcoholic drink and gambling). In that Hadith, the Messenger of Allah recited this Ayah to `Umar, who said, "O Allah! Explain the ruling about Khamr (intoxicants) for us in a plain manner.'' When this Ayah 4:43 was revealed, the Prophet recited it to `Umar, who still said, "O Allah! Explain the ruling about Khamr (intoxicants) for us in a plain manner.'' After that, they would not drink alcohol close to the time of prayer. When Allah's statement,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
(O you who believe! alcoholic drinks, gambling, Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shayatan's handiwork. So avoid that in order that you may be successful. ) 5:90, until,
فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ
(So, will you not then abstain) 5:91 was revealed, `Umar said, "We abstain, we abstain.'' In another narration, when the Ayah in Surat An-Nisa' was revealed,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَـرَى حَتَّى تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ
(O you who believe! Do not approach Salah while you are in a druken state until you know what you are saying,) at the time of prayer, the Messenger of Allah would have someone proclaim; "Let not any drunk approach the prayer.'' This is the wording collected by Abu Dawud.
Ibn Abi Hatim has recorded some reports about the incident of its revelation: Sa`d said, "Four Ayat were revealed concerning me. A man from the Ansar once made some food and invited some Muhajirin and Ansar men to it, and we ate and drank until we became intoxicated. We then boasted about our status.'' Then a man held a camel's bone and injured Sa`d's nose, which was scarred ever since. This occurred before Al-Khamr was prohibited, and Allah later revealed,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَـرَى
(O you who believe! Approach not AsSalat (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state). Muslim recorded this Hadith, and the collectors of the Sunan recorded it, with the exception of Ibn Majah. Another Reason Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that `Ali bin Abi Talib said, "Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf made some food to which he invited us and served some alcohol to drink. When we became intoxicated, and the time for prayer came, they asked someone to lead us in prayer. He recited `Say, `O disbelievers! I do not worship that which you worship, but we worship that which you worship refer to the correct wording of the Surah: 109.''' Allah then revealed,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَـرَى حَتَّى تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ
(O you who believe! Do not approach Salah when you are in a drunken state until you know what you are saying). '' This is the narration collected by Ibn Abi Hatim and At-Tirmidhi, who said "Hasan Gharib Sahih.'' Allah's statement,
حَتَّى تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ
(until you know what you are saying) is the best description for when one is intoxicated, that is, when he does not know the meaning of what he is saying. When a person is drunk, he makes obvious mistakes in the recitation and will not be able to be humble during the prayer. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«إِذَا نَعَسَ أَحَدُكُمْ وَهُوَ يُصَلِّي، فَلْيَنْصَرِفْ فَلْيَنَمْ، حَتَّى يَعْلَمَ مَا يَقُول»
(If one feels sleepy while he is praying, let him sleep for a while so that he knows the meaning of what he is saying.) This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and An-Nasa'i. In some of the narrations of this Hadith, the Messenger said,
«فَلَعَلَّهُ يَذْهَبُ يَسْتَغْفِرُ فَيَسُبَّ نَفْسَه»
(...For he might want to ask for forgiveness, but instead curses himself!) Allah said,
وَلاَ جُنُباً إِلاَّ عَابِرِى سَبِيلٍ حَتَّى تَغْتَسِلُواْ
(nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through, until you bathe (your entire body),) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah's statement,
وَلاَ جُنُباً إِلاَّ عَابِرِى سَبِيلٍ حَتَّى تَغْتَسِلُواْ
(nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through, until you bathe (your entire body,) means, "Do not enter the Masjid when you are Junub, unless you are just passing by, in which case, you pass through without sitting down.'' Ibn Abi Hatim said that similar is reported from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Anas, Abu `Ubaydah, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Abu Ad-Duha, `Ata', Mujahid, Masruq, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Zayd bin Aslam, Abu Malik, `Amr bin Dinar, Al-Hakam bin `Utaybah, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Yahya bin Sa`id Al-Ansari, Ibn Shihab and Qatadah. Ibn Jarir recorded that Yazid bin Abi Habib commented on Allah's statement,
وَلاَ جُنُباً إِلاَّ عَابِرِى سَبِيلٍ
(nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through,) when some men from the Ansar, whose doors literally opened into the Masjid, were sexually impure, and they did not have water, their only way to get water was to pass through the Masjid. So, Allah sent down,
وَلاَ جُنُباً إِلاَّ عَابِرِى سَبِيلٍ
(nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through,).'' What supports this statement by Yazid bin Abi Habib, may Allah have mercy upon him, is Al-Bukhari's report in his Sahih, that the Messenger of Allah said,
«سُدُّوا كُلَّ خَوْخَةٍ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ إِلَّا خَوْخَةَ أَبِي بَكْر»
(Close all the small doors in this Masjid, except that of Abu Bakr.) This is what the Prophet commanded at the end of his life, knowing that Abu Bakr will be the Khalifah after him, and that he would need to enter the Masjid on numerous occasions to manage the important affairs of the Muslims. Yet, the Messenger of Allah commanded that all the small doors that open into the Masjid be closed, except Abu Bakr's door. Some of the Sunan compilers recorded the Prophet saying that only `Ali's door should remain open, but this is an error, what is in the Sahih is what is correct. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that `A'ishah said, "The Messenger of Allah said to me,
«نَاوِلِيِني الْخُمْرَةَ مِنَ الْمَسْجِد»
(Bring me the garment from the Masjid.) I said, `I am having my period.' He said,
«إِنَّ حَيْضَتَكِ لَيْسَتْ فِي يَدِك»
(Your period is not in your hand.) Muslim also collected a similar narration from Abu Hurayrah. This Hadith indicates that the woman is allowed to pass through the Masjid during menses or post-natal bleeding, and Allah knows best.
وَإِنْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَآءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنْكُمْ مِّن الْغَآئِطِ أَوْ لَـمَسْتُمُ النِّسَآءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَآءً فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً
(and if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes from the Gha'it (toilet), or from Lamastum (touching) women, but you do not find water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth, rubbing your face and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.) As for the type of illness which would allow Tayammum, it is an illness that one fears would be aggravated by using water, which could be detrimental to a part of the body, or when doing so would prolong an illness. Some scholars said that any type of illness warrants Tayammum, because of the general indications of the Ayah. As for travelling on a journey, it is known, regardless of its length. Allah then said,
أَوْ جَآءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنْكُمْ مِّن الْغَآئِطِ
(or comes from the Gha'it). The Gha'it is, literally, the flat land, and this part of the Ayah refers to the minor impurity. Allah then said,
أَوْ لَـمَسْتُمُ النِّسَآءَ
(or you Lamastum women), which was recited Lamastum and Lamastum, referring to sexual intercourse. For instance, Allah said in another Ayah,
وَإِن طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَمَسُّوهُنَّ وَقَدْ فَرَضْتُمْ لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً فَنِصْفُ مَا فَرَضْتُمْ
(And if you divorce them before you have touched them, and you have appointed unto them the dowry, then pay half of that) 2:237, and,
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا نَكَحْتُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَـتِ ثُمَّ طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَمَسُّوهُنَّ فَمَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ عِدَّةٍ تَعْتَدُّونَهَا
(O you who believe! When you marry believing women, and then divorce them before you have touched them, no `Iddah (period of waiting) have you to count in respect of them) 33:49. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah's statement,
أَوْ لَـمَسْتُمُ النِّسَآءَ
(or Lamastum women) refers to sexual intercourse. It was reported that `Ali, Ubayy bin Ka`b, Mujahid, Tawus, Al-Hasan, `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ash-Sha`bi, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan said similarly. Allah said,
فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَآءً فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً
(but you do not find water,them perform Tayammum with clean earth,) In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `Imran bin Husayn said, إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلّم رأى رجلا معتزلا لم يصل في القوم فقال:
«يَا فُلَانُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ مَعَ الْقَوْمِ، أَلَسْتَ بِرَجُلٍ مُسْلِمٍ؟»
قال: بلى، يا رسول الله ولكن أصابتني جنابة ولا ماء، قال:
«عَلَيْكَ بِالصَّعِيدِ، فَإِنَّهُ يَكْفِيك»
(Allah's Messenger saw a person sitting away from the people and not praying with them. He asked him, `O so-and-so! What prevented you from offering the prayer with the people, are not you Muslim' He replied, `Yes, O Allah's Messenger! I am Junub and there is no water.' The Prophet said, `Perform Tayammum with clean earth and that will be sufficient for you.') The linguistic meaning of Tayammum is to intend, as Arabs say, "May Allah Tayammamaka (direct at you) His care.'' `Clean earth' means dust. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«فُضِّلْنَا عَلَى النَّاسِ بِثَلَاثٍ: جُعِلَتْ صُفُوفُنَا كَصُفُوفِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ، وَجُعِلَتْ لَنَا الْأَرْضُ كُلُّهَا مَسْجِدًا، وَجُعِلَتْ تُرْبَتُهَا لَنَا طَهُورًا، إِذَا لَمْ نَجِدِ الْمَاء»
(We were given preference over people in three things. Our lines (in prayer) were arranged in rows to resemble the rows of the angels, all of the earth was made a Masjid for us, and its dust was made clean for us when there is no water.) The Messenger mentioned the favor of making dust a purifyer for us, and if there were any other substance to replace it for Tayammum, he would have mentioned it. Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan, with the exception of Ibn Majah, recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«الصَّعِيدُ الطَّيِّبُ طَهُورُ الْمُسْلِمِ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدِ الْمَاءَ عَشْرَ حِجَجٍ، فَإِذَا وَجَدَهُ فَلْيُمِسَّهُ بَشَرَتَهُ، فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ خَيْر»
(Clean earth is pure for the Muslim, even if he does not find water for ten years. When he finds water, let him use it for his skin, for this is better.) At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih''. Allah's statement,
فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ
(rubbing your faces and hands (Tayammum)) indicates that Tayammum is a substitute for normal ablution, not that it involves cleaning the parts that normal ablution does. Therefore, it is sufficient in Tayammum to just wipe the face and hands, as the consensus concurs. The face and hands are wiped with one strike on the sand in this case, as Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Abza said that a man came to `Umar and asked him, "I am Junub, but there is no water.'' `Umar said, "Then, do not pray.'' `Ammar said, "Do you not remember, O Leader of the Faithful! You and I were on a military expedition when we became Junub and did not find water. You did not pray, but I rolled myself in the sand and then prayed. When we went back to the Prophet, we mentioned to him what had happened. He said to me, S
«إِنَّمَا كَانَ يَكْفِيك»
(This would have been sufficient for you), and the Prophet stroked his hand on the earth once, blew into it and wiped his face and hands.'' The Muslim Ummah, rather than all other nations, was favored with the allowance of Tayammum. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«أُعْطِيتُ خَمْسًا لَمْ يُعْطَهُنَّ أَحَدٌ قَبْلِي: نُصِرْتُ بِالرُّعْبِ مَسِيرَةَ شَهْرٍ، وَجُعِلَتْ لِيَ الْأَرْضُ مَسْجِدًا وَطَهُورًا، فَأَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ مِنْ أُمَّتِي أَدْرَكَتْهُ الصَّلَاةُ فَلْيُصَل»
«فَعِنْدَهُ طَهُورُهُ وَمَسْجِدُهُ، وَأُحِلَّتْ لِيَ الْغَنَائِمُ، وَلَمْ تَحِلَّ لِأَحَدٍ قَبْلِي، وَأُعْطِيتُ الشَّفَاعَةَ، وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ يُبْعَثُ إِلى قَوْمِهِ، وَبُعِثْتُ إِلَى النَّاسِ عَامَّة»
(I have been given five things which were not given to any (Prophet) before me: Allah made me victorious with fright that covers a month's distance. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and an object to perform purification with. Therefore let my followers pray wherever the time of a prayer is due - and in another narration - he will have his means of purity and his Masjid. The spoils of war have been made lawful for me and it was not made so for anyone else before me. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection.) Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation exclusively, but I have been sent to all mankind.) We also mentioned the Hadith of Hudhayfah that Muslim recorded;
«فُضِّلْنَا عَلَى النَّاسِ بِثَلَاثٍ، جُعِلَتْ صُفُوفُنَا كَصُفُوفِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ، وَجُعِلَتْ لَنَا الْأَرْضُ مَسْجِدًا، وَتُرْبَتُهَا طَهُورًا، إِذَا لَمْ نَجِدِ الْمَاء»
(We were preferred with three things over people. Our lines (in prayer) were arranged in rows to resemble the rows of the angels, all of the earth was made a Masjid for us, and its dust was made clean for us when there is no water.) Allah said in this Ayah,
فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوّاً غَفُوراً
(rubbing your faces and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.) meaning, a part of His pardoning and forgiving is that He allows you to use Tayammum and to pray after using it when there is no water, to make things easy for you. This Ayah sanctifies the position of the prayer, it being too sacred than to be performed in a defecient manner, like in a state of drunkenness, until one becomes aware of what he is saying, or sexually impure, until he bathes (Ghusl), or after answering the call of nature, until he performs ablution. There are exceptions when one is ill or when there is no water. In this case, Allah allows us to use Tayammum, out of His mercy and kindness for His servants, and to facilitate them, all praise is due to Allah.
Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah said, "We set out with Allah's Messenger on one of his journeys until we reached Al-Bayda' or Dhat-ul-Jaysh, where a necklace of mine was broken (and lost). Allah's Messenger stayed there to search for it, and so did the people along with him. There was no water source or any water with them at that place, so the people went to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and said, `Don't you see what `A'ishah has done! She has made Allah's Messenger and the people stay where there is no source of water and they have no water with them.' Abu Bakr came while Allah's Messenger was sleeping with his head on my thigh. He said to me, `You have detained Allah's Messenger and the people where there is no source of water and they have no water with them.' So he admonished me and said what Allah wished him to say and hit me on my flank with his hand. Nothing prevented me from moving (because of pain) but the position of Allah's Messenger on my thigh. Allah's Messenger got up when dawn broke and there was no water. So Allah revealed the verses of Tayammum, and they all performed Tayammum. Usayd bin Hudayr said, `O the family of Abu Bakr! This is not the first blessing of yours.' Then the camel on which I was riding was moved from its place and the necklace was found beneath it.'' Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith.
"Mendekati" di sini mencakup mendekati tempat-tempat shalat seperti masjid, dan mencakup perbuatan shalat itu sendiri, yakni tidak boleh orang yang mabuk melakukan shalat dan ibadah karena akalnya tidak sadar dan tidak mengerti apa yang dia ucapkan. Namun ayat ini sudah mansukh (dihapus) dengan ayat yang mengharamkan khamr (minuman keras) secara mutlak. Khamr diharamkan melalui tahapan-tahapan. Pada mulanya khamr belum haram, kemudian Allah Ta'ala menawarkan keharamannya kepada hamba-hamba-Nya dengan firman-Nya:
Dari ayat ini dapat diambil kesimpulan larangan melakukan shalat ketika sangat mengantuk, di mana orangnya tidak menyadari lagi apa yang diucapkan dan apa yang dilakukannya. Lebih dari itu, di sana juga terdapat isyarat bahwa sepatutnya bagi orang yang hendak shalat memutuskan segala yang dapat menyibukkan pikirannya, seperti didesak oleh buang air, lapar hendak makan dsb.
Ada pula yang mengartikan "melewati jalan" di sini sebagai orang musafir.
Yang berbahaya jika menggunakan air atau akan bertambah parah sakitnya atau membuat lama sembuhnya meskipun ada air.
Kemudian tertimpa junub atau berhadats, di mana ketika safar biasanya tidak ada air atau ada air namun untuk keperluannya di tengah perjalanan, seperti untuk minum dsb. jika ia meminum air tersebut, ia akan kehausan.
Imam Syafi'i berdalih dengan ayat ini bahwa menyentuh wanita dapat membatalkan wudhu', namun menurut Ibnu Abbas, maksud "menyentuh" di ayat ini adalah berjima'. Ulama lain berpendapat bahwa menyentuh wanita yang membatalkan wudu' adalah menyentuh karena syahwat, di mana hal itu berkemungkinan besar keluarnya madzi. Di antara pendapat-pendapat tersebut, yang rajih adalah pendapat Ibnu Abbas, wallahu a'lam.
Untuk bersuci dengannya setelah berusaha mencarinya. Ayat ini menunjukkan adanya usaha mencari air.
Berdasarkan keterangan di atas, bahwa Allah Ta'ala membolehkan tayammum dalam dua keadaan:
Sha'id di ayat tersebut adalah sesuatu yang nampak di atas permukaan bumi, baik ada debunya maupun tidak. Namun ada yang berpendapat bahwa tayammum harus ada debunya, berdasarkan ayat "Fam sahuu biwujuuhikum wa aydiikum minh" (maka usaplah muka dan tanganmu daripadanya), karena jika tidak ada debunya bagaimana mungkin mengusapnya.
Yakni sampai pergelangan sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh hadits-hadits yang shahih, dan memukulkan telapak tangan ke tanah cukup sekali saja sebagaimana diterangkan dalam hadits Ammar; untuk muka dan telapak tangan.
Oleh karenanya, dia memberikan banyak kemudahan kepada hamba-hamba-Nya, di mana seorang hamba tidak kesulitan melakukannya. Di antara maaf dan ampunan-Nya adalah dengan mensyari'atkan kepada umat ini bersuci dengan debu (tayammum) sebagai pengganti air ketika kesulitan menggunakannya. Termasuk maaf dan ampunan-Nya juga adalah dengan membukakan pintu tobat kepada orang-orang yang berdosa dan mengajak mereka kepada-Nya. Dia pun menjanjikan untuk mengampuni mereka. Lebih dari itu, di antara maaf dan ampunan-Nya adalah jika seorang mukmin datang kepada-Nya dengan dosa sepenuh bumi tanpa menyekutukan-Nya dengan sesuatu, maka Dia akan datang dengan ampunan sepenuh bumi.