أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا هَٰؤُلَاءِ أَهْدَىٰ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا سَبِيلًا
Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture, who believe in superstition and false objects of worship and say about the disbelievers, "These are better guided than the believers as to the way"?
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(Hast thou not seen those unto whom a portion of the Scripture hath been given, how they believe in idolsand false deities…) [4:51]. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya informed us> his father>Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Thaqafi> 'Abd al-Jabbar ibn al-'Ala'> Sufyan> 'Amr>> 'Ikrimah who said: “WhenHuyayy ibn Akhtab and Ka'b al-Ashraf went to the people of Mecca they were asked: 'You are people ofScripture and ancient knowledge, so tell us about us and Muhammad?' 'What do you have to do withMuhammad?' he said. They said: 'We slaughter high-humped camels, give milk on top of water for others todrink, we assist those who are wronged, we do not severe ties of kinship and give water to the pilgrims andour religion is ancient while Muhammad's religion is new'. The Jews said: 'Rather, you are better than himand more guided in your way'. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Hast thou not seen those unto whom aportion of the Scripture hath been given, how they believe in idols and false deities) up to His words, exaltedis He, (… and he whom Allah hath cursed, thou (O Muhammad) wilt find for him no helper) [4:52]”. Thecommentators of the Qur'an said: “After the Battle of Uhud, Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf went to Mecca, accompaniedby seventy riders, in order to ally themselves with Quraysh against the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless himand give him peace, and break the covenant which they had with Allah's Messenger, Allah bless him andgive him peace. Ka'b was the guest of Abu Sufyan while the other Jews were accommodated in the housesof Quraysh. The people of Mecca said: 'Your are people of Scripture and Muhammad has a Scripture and weare not completely sure that this is a scheme that you devised. So if you want us to go along with you, youhave to prostrate to these two idols and believe in them', hence Allah's saying (they believe in idols and falsedeities). Ka'b then said to the people of Mecca: 'Let there be thirty of us and thirty of you; we shall all go tothe Ka'bah and cling to it and promise the Lord of the House that we will do our best to fight Muhammad'.When they finished doing that, Abu Sufyan asked Ka'b: 'You are a man who reads the Scripture and hasknowledge while we are unlettered people who have no knowledge. Tell me: who is more guided in his wayand closer to the truth, is it us or Muhammad?' Ka'b said: 'Tell me about your religion'. Abu Sufyan said: 'Weslaughter high-humped camels for the benefit of pilgrims, we give them water to drink, we welcome theguest, assist the wronged, keep our ties of kinship un-severed, populate the House of our Lord,circumambulate around it, and we are the inhabitants of the Sacred Precinct. Muhammad, on the otherhand, is someone who has left the religion of his forefathers, severed his ties of kinship and went away fromthe Sacred Precinct. Moreover, our religion is ancient while his is new'. Ka'b said: 'By Allah, you are moreguided in your way than he is'. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Hast thou not seen those unto whom aportion of the Scripture hath been given, how they believe in idols and false deities), meaning Ka'b an hiscompanions”.
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ بَلِ اللَّهُ يُزَكِّى مَن يَشَآءُ وَلاَ يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً - انظُرْ كَيفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الكَذِبَ وَكَفَى بِهِ إِثْماً مُّبِيناً - أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيباً مِّنَ الْكِتَـبِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّـغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هَـؤُلاءِ أَهْدَى مِنَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ سَبِيلاً - أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَمَن يَلْعَنِ اللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ نَصِيراً
(49. Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills, and they will not be dealt with injustice even equal to the extent of a Fatil.)
(50. Look, how they invent a lie against Allah, and enough is that as a manifest sin.)
(51. Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture They believe in Jibt and Taghut and say to those who disbelieve, "These people are better guided on the way, '' than the believers.)
(52. They are those whom Allah has cursed, and he whom Allah curses, you will not find for him (any) helper.)
Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, "This Ayah,
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ
(Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves) was revealed about the Jews and Christians when they said, `We are Allah's children and His loved ones.''' Ibn Zayd also said, "This Ayah was revealed concerning their statement,
نَحْنُ أَبْنَاءُ اللَّهِ وَأَحِبَّاؤُهُ
(We are the children of Allah and His loved ones) and their statement,
لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلاَّ مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَـرَى
(None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian).'' This is why Allah said,
بَلِ اللَّهُ يُزَكِّى مَن يَشَآءُ
(Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills,) meaning, the decision in this matter is with Allah Alone, because He has perfect knowledge of the true reality and secrets of all things. Allah then said,
وَلاَ يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً
(And they will not be dealt with injustice even equal to the extent of a Fatil, ) meaning, He does no injustice with anyone's compensation in any part of his reward, even if it was the weight of a Fatil. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata', Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others among the Salaf said that Fatil means, "The scalish thread in the long slit of the date-stone.'' Allah said,
انظُرْ كَيفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الكَذِبَ
(Look, how they invent a lie against Allah,) claiming purity for themselves, their claim that they are Allah's children and His loved ones, their statement;
لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلاَّ مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَـرَى
(None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian) their statement;
لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلاَ أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَتٍ
(The Fire shall not touch us but for a number of days) and their reliance on the righteous deeds of their forefathers. Allah has decreed that the good actions of the fathers do not help the children, when He said,
تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُم
(That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn). Allah then said,
وَكَفَى بِهِ إِثْماً مُّبِيناً
(and enough is that as a manifest sin. ) meaning, these lies and fabrications of theirs are sufficent. Allah's statement,
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيباً مِّنَ الْكِتَـبِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّـغُوتِ
(Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture They believe in Jibt and Taghut). Muhammad bin Ishaq said from Hassan bin Fa'id that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "Jibt is sorcery and Taghut is the Shaytan.'' Abu Nasr Isma`il bin Hammad Al-Jawhari, the renowned scholar, said in his book As-Sihah, "Al-Jibt means idol, soothsayer and sorcerer.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah was asked about Taghut, and he said, "They are soothsayers upon whom the devils descend.'' Mujahid said "Taghut is a devil in the shape of man, and they refer to him for judgment.'' Imam Malik said, "Taghut is every object that is worshipped instead of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.''
وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هَـؤُلاءِ أَهْدَى مِنَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ سَبِيلاً
(and say to those who disbelieve, "These people are better guided on the way," than the believers.) preferring the disbelievers over Muslims, because of their ignorance, un-religious nature and disbelief in Allah's Book which is before them. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ikrimah said, "Huyay bin Akhtab and Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf (two Jewish leaders) came to the people of Makkah, who said to them, `You (Jews) are people of the Book and knowledge, so judge us and Muhammad.' They said, `Describe yourselves and describe Muhammad.' They said, `We keep relation with kith and kin, slaughter camels (for the poor), release the indebted and provide water for the pilgrims. As for Muhammad he is without male children, he severed our relations, and the thieves who rob pilgrims (the tribe of) Ghifar follow him. So who is better, we or him' They said, `You are more righteous and better guided.' Thereafter, Allah sent down,
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيبًا
(Have you not seen those who were given a portion).'' This story was also reported from Ibn `Abbas and several others among the Salaf. Allah's Curse on the Jews This Ayah 4:52 contains a curse for the Jews and informs them that they have no supporter in this life or the Hereafter, because they sought the help of the idolators. They uttered this statement in Ayah 4:51 to lure the disbelievers into supporting them, and they ultimately gathered their forces for the battle of Al-Ahzab, forcing the Prophet and his Companions to dig a defensive tunnel around Al-Madinah. But, Allah saved the Muslims from their evil,
وَرَدَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِغَيْظِهِمْ لَمْ يَنَالُواْ خَيْراً وَكَفَى اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْقِتَالَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ قَوِيّاً عَزِيزاً
(And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage, they gained no advantage (booty). Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting. And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty).