۞ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَنْ تَحْكُمُوا بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُمْ بِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا
Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice. Excellent is that which Allah instructs you. Indeed, Allah is ever Hearing and Seeing.
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(Lo! Allah commandeth you that ye restore deposits to their owners…) [4:58]. This verse was revealedabout ‘Uthman ibn Talhah al-Hajabi, from the Banu ‘Abd al-Dar. This man was the caretaker of the Ka‘bah.When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, entered Mecca upon its conquest.‘Uthman rushed to lock the door of the Sacred House and climbed up to its roof. When the Messenger ofAllah, Allah bless him and give him peace, asked for the key, he was told that ‘Uthman had it. And when heasked him for it, ‘Uthman refused to give him the key, saying: “If I knew that he was the Messenger ofAllah, I would not refuse to give him the key”. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib then twisted the hand of ‘Uthman and tookthe key from him and opened the door of the Ka‘bah. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, entered the House and performed inside it two units of prayers. When he came out, al-‘Abbas askedfor the key of the Ka‘bah, so that he could combine the duty of giving water to the pilgrims and that ofcaretaker of the Sacred House. But Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse, and the Messenger of Allah,Allah bless him and give him peace, commanded ‘Ali to give the key back to ‘Uthman and apologize to him,and so he did. ‘Uthman said to him: “O ‘Ali, you forced and hurt me, and now you come to apologize”. ‘Alisaid to him: “Allah, exalted is He, has revealed this verse about you”, and he recited it to him. Upon hearing,‘Uthman said: “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”. Gabriel, peace be upon him, thencame and said: “As long as this House stands, its key and the duty of taking care of it will stay in theprogeny of ‘Uthman”, and so it is up to this day. Abu Hassan al-Muzakki informed us> Harun ibn Muhammadal-Istrabadhi> Abu Muhammad al-Khuza‘i> Abu’l-Walid al-Azraqi> his grandfather> Sufyan> Sa‘id ibnSalim> Ibn Jurayj> Mujahid regarding the words of Allah, exalted is He (Lo! Allah commandeth you that yerestore deposits to their owners…): “This verse was revealed about ‘Uthman ibn Talhah. The Prophet, Allahbless him and give him peace, collected from him the key of the Ka‘bah upon the conquest of Mecca. Heentered inside it and then came out reciting this verse. He then called ‘Uthman and handed the key over tohim. He said to him: ‘Take the key, O household of Talhah, a trust from Allah, none but transgressor willtake it from you’ ”. Abu’l-Nasr al-Mihrajani informed us> ‘Ubayd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Zahid> Abu’l-Qasimal-Muqri’> Ahmad ibn Zuhayr> Mus‘ab> Shaybah ibn ‘Uthman ibn Abi Talhah who said: “The Prophet, Allahbless him and give him peace, gave the key of the Ka‘bah to me and ‘Uthman and said: ‘Take it, O childrenof Abu Talhah, to be eternally kept among your offspring, and none shall take it from you except atransgressor’. Thus, the Banu Talhah who are the caretaker of the Ka‘bah belong to Banu ‘Abd al-Dar”.
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤدُّواْ الاحَمَـنَـتِ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَن تَحْكُمُواْ بِالْعَدْلِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُمْ بِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً
(58. Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you! Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.)
Allah commands that the trusts be returned to their rightful owners. Al-Hasan narrated that Samurah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«أَدِّ الْأَمَانَةَ إِلى مَنِ ائْتَمَنَكَ، وَلَا تَخُنْ مَنْ خَانَك»
(Return the trust to those who entrusted you, and do not betray those who betrayed you.) Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan recorded this Hadith. This command refers to all things that one is expected to look after, such as Allah's rights on His servants: praying, Zakah, fasting, penalties for sins, vows and so forth. The command also includes the rights of the servants on each other, such as what they entrust each other with, including the cases that are not recorded or documented. Allah commands that all types of trusts be fulfillled. Those who do not implement this command in this life, it will be extracted from them on the Day of Resurrection. It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَتُؤَدَّنَّ الْحُقُوقُ إِلى أَهْلِهَا حَتَّى يُقْتَصَّ لِلشَّاةِ الْجَمَّاءِ مِنَ الْقَرْنَاء»
(The rights will be rendered back to those to whom they are due, and even the sheep that does not have horns will take revenge from the horned sheep.) Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Jurayj said about this Ayah, "It was revealed concerning `Uthman bin Talhah from whom the Messenger of Allah took the key of the Ka`bah and entered it on the Day of the victory of Makkah. When the Prophet went out, he was reciting this Ayah,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤدُّواْ الاحَمَـنَـتِ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا
(Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due). He then called `Uthman and gave the key back to him.'' Ibn Jarir also narrated that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "When the Messenger of Allah went out of the Ka`bah, he was reciting this Ayah,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤدُّواْ الاحَمَـنَـتِ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا
(Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due). May I sacrifice my father and mother for him, I never heard him recite this Ayah before that.'' It is popular that this is the reason behind revealing the Ayah (4:58). Yet, the application of the Ayah is general, and this is why Ibn `Abbas and Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah said, "This Ayah is for the righteous and wicked,'' meaning it is a command that encompasses everyone.
وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَن تَحْكُمُواْ بِالْعَدْلِ
(and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice.) commanding justice when judging between people. Muhammad bin Ka`b, Zayd bin Aslam and Shahr bin Hawshab said; "This Ayah was revealed about those in authority'', meaning those who judge between people. A Hadith states,
«إِنَّ اللهَ مَعَ الْحَاكِمِ مَا لَمْ يَجُرْ، فَإِذَا جَارَ وَكَلَهُ اللهُ إِلى نَفْسِه»
(Allah is with the judge as long as he does not commit injustice, for when he does, Allah will make him reliant on himself.) A statement goes, "One day of justice equals forty years of worship.'' Allah said,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُمْ بِهِ
(Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you!) meaning, His commands to return the trusts to their owners, to judge between people with justice, and all of His complete, perfect and great commandments and laws. Allah's statement,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً
(Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.) means, He hears your statements and knows your actions.