فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا
But no, by your Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you, [O Muhammad], judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in [full, willing] submission.
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(But nay, by thy Lord, they will not believe (in truth) until they make thee judge of what is in disputebetween them…) [4:65]. This was revealed about al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam and his adversary Hatib ibn AbiBalta'ah, and it was also said that his adversary was Tha'labah ibn Hatib. Abu Sa'id 'Abd al-Rahman ibnHamdan informed us> Ahmad ibn Ja'far ibn Malik> 'Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal> his father> Abu'l-Yaman> Shu'ayb> al-Zuhri> 'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr> his father that he used to relate that he once went tothe Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, to settle a dispute he had with one of the Helpers who hadparticipated in the Battle of Badr regarding a water conduit which they both used to water their land. TheProphet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said to al-Zubayr: “Water your land first and then let the waterflow to your neighbour”. The Helper got angry and said: “O Messenger of Allah! You judged in this waybecause he is the son of your maternal aunt”. Upon hearing this, the face of the Messenger of Allah, Allahbless him and give him peace, flushed. He then said to al-Zubayr: “Water your land and then block thewater until it goes back to its source”. In this way the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, gave al-Zubayr his full right. His first command to al-Zubayr was made because he wanted to make iteasy on both al-Zubayr and the Helper. But when the Helper protested against the judgement of theMessenger of Allah, he gave al-Zubayr his full right as he deserved this judgement in the first place. Said'Urwah: “By Allah, I do not think that this verse (But nay, by thy Lord, they will not believe (in truth) untilthey make thee judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of thatwhich thou decidest, and submit with full submission) was revealed about other than this incident”. This wasnarrated by Bukhari> 'Ali ibn 'Abd Allah> Muhammad ibn Ja'far> Ma'mar, and also by Muslim> Qutaybah>al-Layth and both al-Layth and Ma'mar related it from al-Zuhri. Abu 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hamid informedus> Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Hafiz> Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani> Ahmad ibn Hammad ibn Zughbah> Hamid ibn Yahya ibn Hani' al-Balkhi> Sufyan> 'Amribn Dinar> Abu Salamah> Umm Salamah who related that al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam had a dispute with aman and the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, judged in his favour. The man saidthat he judged in his favour because he was his cousin. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (But nay, bythy Lord, they will not believe…).
وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إلاَّ لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ جَآءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُواْ اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُواْ اللَّهَ تَوَّاباً رَّحِيماً - فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُواْ فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجاً مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيماً
(64. We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by Allah's leave. If they, when they were unjust to themselves, had come to you and begged Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had begged forgiveness for them, indeed, they would have found Allah All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)
(65. But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.)
وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إلاَّ لِيُطَاعَ
(We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed) meaning, obeying the Prophet was ordained for those to whom Allah sends the Prophet. Allah's statement,
(by Allah's leave) means, "None shall obey, except by My leave,'' according to Mujahid. This Ayah indicates that the Prophets are only obeyed by whomever Allah directs to obedience. In another Ayah, Allah said,
وَلَقَدْ صَدَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ إِذْ تَحُسُّونَهُمْ بِإِذْنِهِ
(And Allah did indeed fulfill His promise to you when you were killing them (your enemy) with His permission) meaning, by His command, decree, will and because He granted you superiority over them. Allah's statement,
وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ
(If they (hypocrites), when they had been unjust to themselves,) directs the sinners and evildoers, when they commit errors and mistakes, to come to the Messenger , so that they ask Allah for forgiveness in his presence and ask him to supplicate to Allah to forgive them. If they do this, Allah will forgive them and award them His mercy and pardon. This is why Allah said,
لَوَجَدُواْ اللَّهَ تَوَّاباً رَّحِيماً
(they would have found Allah All-Forgiving (One Who forgives and accepts repentance), Most Merciful).
فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ
(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them,) Allah swears by His Glorious, Most Honorable Self, that no one shall attain faith until he refers to the Messenger for judgment in all matters. Thereafter, whatever the Messenger commands, is the plain truth that must be submitted to inwardly and outwardly. Allah said,
ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُواْ فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجاً مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيماً
(and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.) meaning: they adhere to your judgment, and thus do not feel any hesitation over your decision, and they submit to it inwardly and outwardly. They submit to the Prophet's decision with total submission without any rejection, denial or dispute. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Urwah said, "Az-Zubayr quarreled with a man about a stream which both of them used for irrigation. Allah's Messenger said to Az-Zubayr,
«اسْقِ يَا زُبَيْرُ ثُمَّ أَرْسِلِ الْمَاءَ إِلى جَارِك»
(O Zubayr! Irrigate (your garden) first, and then let the water flow to your neighbor.) The Ansari became angry and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Is it because he is your cousin' On that, the face of Allah's Messenger changed color (because of anger) and said,
«اسْقِ يَا زُبَيْرُ ثُمَّ احْبِسِ الْمَاءَ حَتَّى يَرْجِعَ إِلَى الْجَدْرِ،ثُمَّ أَرْسِلِ الْمَاءَ إِلى جَارِك»
(Irrigate (your garden), O Zubayr, and then withhold the water until it reaches the walls (surrounding the palms). Then, release the water to your neighbor.) So, Allah's Messenger gave Az-Zubayr his full right when the Ansari made him angry. Before that, Allah's Messenger had given a generous judgment, beneficial for Az-Zubayr and the Ansari. Az-Zubayr said, `I think the following verse was revealed concerning that case,
فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ
(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad ) judge in all disputes between them.)''' Another Reason In his Tafsir, Al-Hafiz Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin `Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim bin Duhaym recorded that Damrah narrated that two men took their dispute to the Prophet , and he gave a judgment to the benefit of whoever among them had the right. The person who lost the dispute said, "I do not agree.'' The other person asked him, "What do you want then'' He said, "Let us go to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.'' They went to Abu Bakr and the person who won the dispute said, "We went to the Prophet with our dispute and he issued a decision in my favor.'' Abu Bakr said, "Then the decision is that which the Messenger of Allah issued.'' The person who lost the dispute still rejected the decision and said, "Let us go to `Umar bin Al-Khattab.'' When they went to `Umar, the person who won the dispute said, "We took our dispute to the Prophet and he decided in my favor, but this man refused to submit to the decision.'' `Umar bin Al-Khattab asked the second man and he concurred. `Umar went to his house and emerged from it holding aloft his sword. He struck the head of the man who rejected the Prophet's decision with the sword and killed him. Consequently, Allah revealed,
فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ
(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith).