وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَنْ يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَأً ۚ وَمَنْ قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ إِلَّا أَنْ يَصَّدَّقُوا ۚ فَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
And never is it for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer by mistake - then the freeing of a believing slave and a compensation payment presented to the deceased's family [is required] unless they give [up their right as] charity. But if the deceased was from a people at war with you and he was a believer - then [only] the freeing of a believing slave; and if he was from a people with whom you have a treaty - then a compensation payment presented to his family and the freeing of a believing slave. And whoever does not find [one or cannot afford to buy one] - then [instead], a fast for two months consecutively, [seeking] acceptance of repentance from Allah. And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.
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(It is not for a believer to kill a believer unless (it be) by mistake…) [4:92]. Abu ‘Abd Allah ibn Abi Ishaqinformed us> Abu ‘Amr ibn Nujayd> Abu Muslim Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd Allah> Ibn Hajjaj> Hammad> Muhammadibn Ishaq> ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Qasim> his father who reported that al-Harith ibn Shadid was hard on theProphet, Allah bless him and give him peace. He was on his way to embrace Islam when he was met by‘Ayyash ibn Abi Rabi‘ah, and not realising that al-Harith wanted to embrace Islam, he killed him. And soAllah, exalted is He, revealed this verse (It is not for a believer to kill a believer unless (it be) by mistake…).Al-Kalbi explained this event, saying: “‘Ayyash ibn Abi Rabi‘ah al-Makhzumi had embraced Islam but wasfearful of coming in the open about it. He fled to Medina and took refuge in one of its fortresses. His motherwas distressed a great deal. She said to her two sons Abu Jahl and al-Harith ibn Hisham, who were his halfbrothers from his mother’s side: ‘By Allah, I will stay outside in the sun, not eating or drinking, until youbring him back to me’. And they went looking for him, accompanied by al-Harith ibn Zayd ibn Abi Anisah,until they reached Medina. They went to ‘Ayyash in his fortress, and said to him: ‘Come down, your motherhas not entered the confines of a house since you left. She has also sworn that she will not eat or drink untilyou go back to her. By Allah we give you assurance that we will not coerce you to do anything nor will wecome between you and your religion’. When they mentioned his mother’s distress and gave him theirassurance, he came down to them. They took him out of Medina, tied him up with strings and whipped hima hundred lashes each, and then took him to his mother. His mother said to him: ‘I will not untie your fettersuntil you disbelieve in that which you have believed’, and he was left fettered in the sun until he gave themsome of what they had wanted. Al-Harith ibn Yazid went to him and said: ‘O ‘Ayyash, by Allah, if that whichyou followed was guidance, you have now left it, and if it was error, you were already in error’. ‘Ayyash gotvery angry because of what al-Harith said to him and this prompted him to say to him: ‘By Allah, I will killyou if I find you alone’. Afterwards, ‘Ayyash embraced Islam and migrated to the Messenger of Allah, Allahbless him and give him peace, in Medina. Al-Harith ibn Yazid also embraced Islam and migrated to Medina.This happened at a time when ‘Ayyash was not present. As such, he was unaware of al-Harith becomingMuslim. As he was walking outside Quba’, he met al-Harith ibn Yazid. When he saw him, he attacked andkilled him. People said to him: ‘What on earth have you done? He had become Muslim!’ ‘Ayyash went backto the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, you knowwhat happened between me and al-Harith; I was unaware of his acceptance of Islam and I killed him’. Andso Gabriel, peace be upon him, came down with the words of Allah, exalted is He, (It is not for a believer tokill a believer unless (it be) by mistake…)”.
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَن يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِناً إِلاَّ خَطَئاً وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِناً خَطَئاً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ إِلاَّ أَن يَصَّدَّقُواْ فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّكُمْ وَهُوَ مْؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِّيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةً فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً - وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُّتَعَمِّداً فَجَزَآؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِداً فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَاباً عَظِيماً
(92. It is not for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake; and whosoever kills a believer by mistake, he must set free a believing slave and submit compensation (blood money) to the deceased's family unless they remit it. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is prescribed); and if he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, then compensation (blood money) must be paid to his family, and a believing slave must be freed. And whoso finds this beyond his means, he must fast for two consecutive months in order to seek repentance from Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.)
(93. And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein; and the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him.)
Allah states that the believer is not allowed to kill his believing brother under any circumstances. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَا يَحِلُّ دَمُ امْرِىءٍ مُسْلِمٍ يَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ، وَأَنِّي رَسُولُ اللهِ، إِلَّا بِإِحْدَى ثَلَاثٍ: النَّفْسُ بِالنَّفْسِ، وَالثَّيِّبُ الزَّانِي، وَالتَّارِكُ لِدِينِهِ الْمُفَارِقُ لِلْجَمَاعَة»
(The blood of a Muslim who testifies that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah, is sacred, except in three instances. (They are:) life for life, the married adulterer, and whoever reverts from the religion and abandons the Jama`ah (community of the faithful believers).) When one commits any of these three offenses, it is not up to ordinary citizens to kill him or her, because this is the responsibility of the Muslim Leader or his deputy. Allah said,
(except by mistake). There is a difference of opinion concerning the reason behind revealing this part of the Ayah. Mujahid and others said that it was revealed about `Ayyash bin Abi Rabi`ah, Abu Jahl's half brother, from his mother's side, Asma' bint Makhrabah. `Ayyash killed a man called Al-Harith bin Yazid Al-`Amiri, out of revenge for torturing him and his brother because of their Islam. That man later embraced Islam and performed Hijrah, but `Ayyash did not know this fact. On the Day of the Makkan conquest, `Ayyash saw that man and thought that he was still a disbeliever, so he attacked and killed him. Later, Allah sent down this Ayah. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that this Ayah was revealed about Abu Ad-Darda' because he killed a man after he embraced the faith, just as Abu Ad-Darda' held the sword above him. When this matter was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah , Abu Ad-Darda' said, "He only said that to avert death.'' The Prophet said to him,
«هَلَّا شَقَقْتَ عَنْ قَلْبِه»
(Have you opened his heart) The basis for this story is in the Sahih, but it is not about Abu Ad-Darda'. Allah said,
وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِناً خَطَئاً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ
(and whosoever kills a believer by mistake, he must set free a believing slave and submit compensation (blood money) to the deceased's family) thus, ordaining two requirements for murder by mistake. The first requirement is the Kaffarah (fine) for the great sin that has been committed, even if it was a mistake. The Kaffarah is to free a Muslim slave, not a non-Muslim slave. Imam Ahmad recorded that a man from the Ansar said that he brought a slave and said, "O Messenger of Allah! I have to free a believing slave, so if you see that this slave is a believer, I will free her.'' The Messenger of Allah asked her,
«أَتَشْهَدِينَ أَنْ لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ؟»
(Do you testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah) She said, "Yes.'' He asked her,
«أَتَشْهَدِينَ أَنِّي رَسُولُ اللهِ؟»
(Do you testify that I am the Messenger of Allah) She said, "Yes.'' He asked,
«أَتُؤْمِنِينَ بِالْبَعْثِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ؟»
(Do you believe in Resurrection after death) She said, "Yes.'' The Prophet said,
(Then free her.) This is an authentic chain of narration, and not knowing the name of the Ansari Companion does not lessen its authenticity. Allah's statement,
وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ
(and submit compensation (blood money) to the deceased's family) is the second obligation which involves the killer and the family of the deceased, who will receive blood money as compensation for their loss. The compensation is only obligatory for the one who possesses one of five; as Imam Ahmad, and the Sunan compilers recorded from Ibn Mas`ud. He said; "Allah's Messenger determined that the Diyah (blood money) for unintentional murder is twenty camels which entered their fourth year, twenty camels which entered their fifth year, twenty camels which entered their second year, and twenty camels which entered their third year.'' This is the wording of An-Nasa'i. This Diyah is required from the elders of the killer's tribe, not from his own money. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "Two women from Hudhayl quarreled and one of them threw a stone at the other and killed her and her unborn fetus. They disputed before the Messenger of Allah and he decided that the Diyah of the fetus should be to free a male or a female slave. He also decided that the Diyah of the deceased is required from the elders of the killer's tribe.'' This Hadith indicates that in the case of what appears to be intentional murder, the Diyah is the same as that for killing by virtual mistake. The former type requires three types of Diyah, just like intentional murder, because it is somewhat similar to intentional murder. Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah sent Khalid bin Al-Walid to Banu Jadhimah and he called them to Islam, but they did not know how to say, `We became Muslims.' They started saying, `Saba'na, Saba'na (we became Sabians). Khalid started killing them, and when this news was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah , he raised his hands and said,
«اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَبْرَأُ إِلَيْكَ مِمَّا صَنَعَ خَالِد»
(O Allah! I declare my innocence before You of what Khalid did.) The Messenger sent `Ali to pay the Diyah of those who were killed and to compensate for the property that was destroyed, to the extent of replacing the dog's bowl. This Hadith indicates that the mistake of the Leader or his deputy (Khalid in this case) is paid from the Muslim Treasury. Allah said,
إِلاَّ أَن يَصَّدَّقُواْ
(unless they remit it), meaning, the Diyah must be delivered to the family of the deceased, unless they forfeit their right, in which case the Diyah does not become necessary. Allah's statement,
فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّكُمْ وَهُوَ مْؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ
(If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is prescribed);) means, if the murdered person was a believer, yet his family were combatant disbelievers, then they will receive no Diyah. In this case, the murderer only has to free a believing slave. Allah's statement,
وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِّيثَاقٌ
(and if he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance,) meaning, if the family of the deceased were from Ahl Adh-Dhimmah or with whom there is a peace treaty, then they deserve his Diyah; full Diyah if the deceased was a believer, in which case the killer is required to free a believing slave also.
فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ
(And whoso finds this beyond his means, he must fast for two consecutive months) without breaking the fast (in the days of) the two months. If he breaks the fast without justification, i.e. illness, menstruation, post-natal bleeding, then he has to start all over again. Allah's statement,
تَوْبَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً
(to seek repentance from Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) means, this is how the one who kills by mistake can repent, he fasts two consecutive months if he does not find a slave to free.
وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً
(And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise), we mentioned the explanation of this before.
After Allah mentioned the ruling of unintentional murder, He mentioned the ruling for intentional murder. Allah said,
وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُّتَعَمِّداً
(And whoever kills a believer intentionally,) This Ayah carries a stern warning and promise for those who commit so grave a sin that it is mentioned along with Shirk in several Ayat of Allah's Book. For instance, in Surat Al-Furqan, Allah said,
وَالَّذِينَ لاَ يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَـهَا ءَاخَرَ وَلاَ يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِى حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ
(And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill such person as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause). Allah said,
قُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَلاَّ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئاً
(Say: "Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him.) 6:151. There are many Ayat and Hadiths that prohibit murder. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«أَوَّلُ مَا يُقْضَى بَيْنَ النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِي الدِّمَاء»
(Blood offenses are the first disputes to be judged between the people on the Day of Resurrection. ) In a Hadith that Abu Dawud recorded, `Ubadah bin As-Samit states that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَا يَزَالُ الْمُؤْمِنُ مُعْنِقًا صَالِحًا، مَا لَمْ يُصِبْ دَمًا حَرَامًا، فَإِذَا أَصَابَ دَمًا حَرَامًا بَلَّح»
(The believer will remain unburdened in righteousness as long as he does not shed prohibited blood. When he sheds forbidden blood, he will become burdened.) Another Hadith, states,
«لَزَوَالُ الدُّنْيَا أَهْوَنُ عِنْدَ اللهِ مِنْ قَتْلِ رَجُلٍ مُسْلِم»
(The destruction of this earthly life is less significant before Allah than killing a Muslim man (or woman).)
Ibn `Abbas held the view that the repentance of one who intentionally murders a believer, will not be accepted. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Jubayr said, "The people of knowledge of Al-Kufah differed on this subject, I traveled to Ibn `Abbas to ask him about it. He said, `This Ayah,
وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُّتَعَمِّداً فَجَزَآؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ
(And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell) was the last revealed on this subject and nothing abrogated it.''' Muslim and An-Nasa'i also recorded it. However, the majority of scholars of the earlier and later generations said that the killer's repentance can be accepted. If he repents, and goes back to Allah humbly, submissively, and performing righteous deeds, then Allah will change his evil deeds into good deeds and compensate the deceased for his loss by rewarding him for his suffering. Allah said, R
وَالَّذِينَ لاَ يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَـهَا ءَاخَرَ
(And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah), until,
إِلاَّ مَن تَابَ وَءَامَنَ وَعَمِلَ عَمَلاً صَـلِحاً
(Except those who repent and believe, and do righteous deeds). The Ayah we just mentioned should not be considered abrogated or only applicable to the disbelievers who become Muslim, for this contradicts the general, encompassing indications of the Ayah and requires evidence to support it. Allah knows best. Allah said,
قُلْ يعِبَادِىَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُواْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ لاَ تَقْنَطُواْ مِن رَّحْمَةِ اللَّهِ
(Say: "O My servants who have transgressed against themselves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah). This Ayah is general, covering all types of sins, including Kufr, Shirk, doubt, hypocrisy, murder, sin, and so forth. Therefore, everyone who repents sincerely from any of these errors, then Allah will forgive him. Allah said,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ
(Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills). This Ayah is general and includes every sin except Shirk, and it has been mentioned in this Surah, both after this Ayah and before it, in order to encourage hope in Allah, and Allah knows best. It is confirmed in the Two Sahihs, that an Israeli killed one hundred people then he asked a scholar, "Is it possible for me to repent'' So he replied, "What is there that would prevent you from repentance'' So he told him to go to another land where Allah was worshipped. He began to emigrate to it but died on the way, and the angel of mercy was the one to take him. Although this Hadith is about an Israeli, it is even more suitable for the Muslim community that their repentance be accepted. Indeed, Allah relieved Muslims from the burdens and restrictions that were placed on the Jews, and He sent our Prophet with the easy Hanifiyyah way (Islamic Monotheism). As for the honorable Ayah,
وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُّتَعَمِّداً
(And whoever kills a believer intentionally), Abu Hurayrah and several among the Salaf said that this is his punishment, if Allah decides to punish him. And this is the case with every threat that is issued for every sin. For instance, there could be good deeds that this person has done that would prevent him from being punished for that, and Allah knows best. Even if the murderer inevitably enters the Fire -- as Ibn `Abbas stated because his repentance was not accepted, or he did not have good deeds to save him, he will not remain there for eternity, but only for a long time. There are Mutawatir Hadiths stating that the Messenger of Allah said,
«إِنَّهُ يَخْرُجُ مِنَ النَّارِ مَنْ كَانَ فِي قَلْبِهِ أَدْنَى ذَرَّةٍ مِنْ إِيمَان»
(Whoever has the least speck of faith in his heart shall ultimately depart the Fire.)
Yakni tidak mungkin atau mustahil seorang mukmin membunuh saudaranya secara sengaja. Dalam ayat ini terdapat dalil besarnya keharaman membunuh seorang mukmin dan bahwa hal itu bertentangan sekali dengan keimanan, bahkan hal itu tidaklah muncul kecuali dari orang kafir atau orang fasik yang imannya begitu kurang. Yang demikian karena iman yang sesungguhnya mencegah seorang mukmin membunuh saudaranya, di mana Allah telah mengikat antara dia dengan saudaranya dengan persaudaraan iman, yang konsekwensinya adalah saling mencintai dan memberikan wala' serta menghindarkan sesuatu yang dapat menyakiti saudaranya. Lantas sesuatu apakah yang lebih menyakiti saudaranya daripada membunuh?. Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam pernah bersabda:
Seperti menembak burung, namun terkena seorang mukmin. Dalam hal ini, orang tersebut tidaklah berdosa, akan tetapi karena ia telah melakukan perbuatan buruk, di mana gambaran dari perbuatan itu sudah cukup menunjukkan keburukannya meskipun ia tidak bermaksud membunuh, maka Allah memerintahkannya untuk membayar diyat dan kaffarat.
Baik yang membunuh laki-laki maupun wanita, merdeka atau budak, anak kecil atau orang dewasa, muslim atau kafir. Hal ini berdasarkan lafaz "man" yang menunjukkan keumuman.
Baik yang terbunuh laki-laki atau wanita, anak kecil atau orang dewasa.
Dengan hartanya. Hamba sahaya yang dimerdekakannya ini mencakup anak-anak atau orang dewasa, laki-laki atau perempuan, yang sehat atau yang bercacat (menurut pendapat sebagian ulama). Namun yang tepat adalah tidak bisa memerdekakan budak yang bercacat, karena tujuan memerdekakan budak adalah bermanfaat merdeka itu bagi dirinya dan ia memiliki hak terhadap manfaat dari dirinya. Apabila budak yang bercacat dimerdekakan, maka tidak bermanfaat apa-apa, dan bahkan jika tetap sebagai budak lebih bermanfaat baginya, maka tidak sah budak yang cacat tersebut dimerdekakan. Hal ini ditunjukkan pula oleh kata-kata "Fa tahriiru raqabah" (memerdekakan seorang hamba sahaya), di mana memerdekakan tersebut berarti membebaskan manfaat yang sebelumnya untuk orang lain menjadi untuk dirinya sendiri.
Diat ialah pembayaran sejumlah harta karena suatu tindak pidana terhadap suatu jiwa atau anggota badan. Diyatnya menurut As Sunnah adalah seratus ekor unta dengan rincian; 20 bintu makhaadh, 20 bintu labun, 20 ibnu labun, 20 hiqqah dan 20 jadza'ah.
Yakni ahli warisnya.
Bersedekah di sini maksudnya membebaskan si pembunuh dari pembayaran diat. Dalam ayat ini terdapat anjuran memaafkan, karena Allah menamainya sedekah, sedangkan sedekah itu diperintahkan.
Yakni dari kalangan kaum kafir harbi (yang memerangi kaum muslimin).
Yakni pembunuhnya cukup membayar kaffarat saja, yaitu dengan memerdekakan seorang budak yang beriman, dan tidak ada diyat yang diserahkan kepada keluarganya karena permusuhan dan peperangan yang mereka lancarkan kepada kaum muslimin.
Seperti kaum dzimmiy (orang-orang kafir yang tinggal di bawah pemerintahan Islam dengan membayar pajak) agar diri dan harta mereka terlindungi.
Yaitu 1/3 dari diyat orang mukmin, jika si terbunuh orang Yahudi atau Nasrani, dan 2/30 jika si terbunuh orang Majusi.
Maksudnya tidak mempunyai hamba atau tidak memperoleh hamba sahaya yang beriman atau tidak mampu membelinya untuk dimerdekakan. Menurut sebagian ahli tafsir, puasa dua bulan berturut-turut itu adalah sebagai ganti dari pembayaran diat dan memerdekakan hamba sahaya.
Tidak berbuka di salah satu hari dari dua bulan itu tanpa udzur (alasan). Namun jika ia berbuka karena 'udzur, maka udzur tersebut tidak memutuskan "berturut-turut" tersebut, seperti sakit, haidh dsb. Tetapi, jika dia berbuka tanpa udzur, maka terputuslah "berturut-turut" tersebut dan puasanya wajib dimulai dari awal.
Kaffarat yang Allah wajibkan tersebut merupakan tobat dari Allah untuk hamba-hamba-Nya, sebagai rahmat-Nya kepada mereka dan menghapuskan apa saja yang mereka lakukan berupa sikap remeh dan kurang hati-hati.
Tentang keadaan makhluk-Nya.
Dalam aturan yang ditetapkan-Nya. Di antara kebijaksanaan-Nya adalah apa Yang Dia wajibkan kepada pembunuh, yaitu melakukan kaffarat yang memang sesuai dengan perbuatan yang dilakukan, karena ia menjadi sebab hilangnya jiwa yang terpelihara, maka sangat sesuai jika kaffaratnya adalah membebaskan seorang budak dan melepaskannya dari ikatan perbudakan kepada makhluk menjadi bebas dan merdeka. Jika ia tidak mendapatkan budak, maka dengan berpuasa selama dua bulan berturut-turut, di mana dia melepaskan dirinya dari perbudakan kepada syahwat dan kelezatan yang sesungguhnya memutuskan kebahagiaannya yang abadi, beralih menuju beribadah kepada Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala untuk mendekatkan diri kepada-Nya. Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala juga menetapkan waktu yang lama dan mewajibkan secara berturut-turut, serta tidak mensyari'atkan memberi orang miskin sebagai gantinya karena tidak sesuai. Termasuk kebijaksanaan-Nya pula adalah mewajibkan diyat dalam pembunuhan, meskipun tidak sengaja agar menjadi penghalang utama terhadap banyaknya pembunuhan dengan menggunakan sebab-sebab yang dapat menjaganya dari pembunuhan itu. Demikian juga termasuk kebijakasanaan-Nya adalah Dia menutupi rasa sedih yang menimpa keluarga korban dengan diyat yang Allah wajibkan diberikan kepada wali-wali korban.