۞ إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
Indeed, the worst of living creatures in the sight of Allah are the deaf and dumb who do not use reason.
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(And when they said: O Allah! If this be indeed the truth from Thee…) [8:32-33]. The Commentators of theQur’an said: “This was revealed about al-Nadr ibn al-Harith who said: ‘[O Allah!] If what Muhammad says istrue, then rain down stones on us’ ”. Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ja‘far informed us> Muhammad ibn ‘AbdAllah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hakam> Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub al-Shaybani> Ahmad ibn al-Nadr ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab> ‘Ubayd Allah ibn Mu‘adh> his father> Shu‘bah> ‘Abd al-Hamid, the companion of al-Ziyadi whoheard Anas ibn Malik saying: “Abu Jahl said: (If this be indeed the truth from Thee, then rain down stoneson us or bring on us some painful doom!) and so this was revealed (But Allah would not punish them whilethou wast with them)”. This was narrated by Bukhari from Ahmad ibn al-Nadr and by Muslim from ‘Abd Allahibn Mu‘adh.
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلاَ تَوَلَّوْاْ عَنْهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَسْمَعُونَ - وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ قَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَهُمْ لاَ يَسْمَعُونَ - إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِندَ اللَّهِ الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ - وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لأَسْمَعَهُمْ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ
(20. O you who believe! Obey Allah and His Messenger, and turn not away from him while you are hearing. )
(21. And be not like those who say: "We have heard,'' but they hear not.)
(22. Verily, the worst of living creatures with Allah are the deaf and the dumb (the disbelievers), who understand not.)
(23. Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen; and even if He had made them listen, they would but have turned away with aversion.)
Allah commands His believing servants to obey Him and His Messenger and warns them against defying him and imitating the disbelievers who reject him. Allah said,
وَلاَ تَوَلَّوْاْ عَنْهُ
(and turn not away from him...), neither refrain from obeying him or following his commands nor indulge in what he forbade,
(while you are hearing.) after you gained knowledge of his Message,
وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ قَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَهُمْ لاَ يَسْمَعُونَ
(And be not like those who say: "We have heard,'' but they hear not.) Ibn Ishaq said that this Ayah refers to the hypocrites, who pretend to hear and obey, while in fact they do neither. Allah declares that these are the most wicked creatures among the Children of Adam,
إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِندَ اللَّهِ الصُّمُّ
(Verily, the worst of living creatures with Allah are the deaf) who do not hear the truth,
(and the dumb) who cannot comprehend it,
الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ
(who understand not. ) These indeed are the most wicked creatures, for every creature except them abide by the way that Allah created in them. These people were created to worship Allah, but instead disbelieved. This is why Allah equated them to animals, when He said,
وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِى يَنْعِقُ بِمَا لاَ يَسْمَعُ إِلاَّ دُعَآءً وَنِدَآءً
(And the example of those who disbelieve is as that of him who shouts to those that hear nothing but calls and cries.) 2:171, and,
أُوْلَـئِكَ كَالأَنْعَـمِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْغَـفِلُونَ
(They are like cattle, nay even more astray; those! They are the heedless ones.) 7:179 It was also said that the Ayah (8:22) refers to some of the pagans of Quraysh from the tribe of Bani `Abd Ad-Dar, according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Ibn Jarir. Muhammad bin Ishaq said that this Ayah refers to hypocrites, as we stated. There is no contradiction here, because both disbelievers and hypocrites are devoid of sound comprehension, in addition to having lost the intention to do good. Allah states here that such are those who neither have sound understanding nor good intentions, even if they have some type of reason,
وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لأَسْمَعَهُمْ
(Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen.) He would have helped them understand. However, this did not happen because there is no goodness in such people, for Allah knows that,
(even if He had made them listen...) and allowed them to understand,
(they would but have turned...), intentionally and out of stubbornness, even after they comprehend,
(with aversion.), to the truth.
Maksudnya manusia yang paling buruk di sisi Allah ialah yang tidak mau mendengar, menuturkan dan memahami kebenaran. Ayat-ayat dan peringatan sama sekali tidak bermanfaat bagi mereka. Mereka ini disebut Allah sebagai orang-orang yang tidak mengerti, yakni tidak mengerti hal yang bermanfaat bagi mereka, dan tidak mengutamakannya di atas madharrat. Mereka ini di sisi Allah lebih buruk dari semua makhluk bergerak, karena Alah Taâala telah memberikan mereka pendengaran, penglihatan dan hati agar mereka menggunakannya untuk memahami ayat-ayat Allah dan menaati-Nya, namun mereka menggunakannya untuk maksiat sehingga terhalang dari banyak kebaikan. Mereka sesungguhnya dapat mendengar, akan tetapi tidak masuk ke dalam hati, mereka hanya mendengar sesuatu yang menjadi hujjah atas mereka, dan mereka tidak mendengar sesuatu yang bermanfaat bagi mereka karena Alah mengetahui bahwa dalam hati mereka tidak ada kebaikan sebagaimana diterangkan dalam ayat selanjutnya.