وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
But why should Allah not punish them while they obstruct [people] from al-Masjid al- Haram and they were not [fit to be] its guardians? Its [true] guardians are not but the righteous, but most of them do not know.
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(It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land…) [8:67-69]. SaidMujahid: “It happened that some of that which was revealed from heaven agreed with many of 'Umar'sopinions. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consulted the Muslims aboutthe prisoners of Badr, they said: 'O Messenger of Allah, they are your cousins, so free them in exchange fora ransom'. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said: 'No, O Messenger of Allah, you should kill them'. Then this verse wasrevealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land)”. Said Ibn'Umar: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consulted Abu Bakr regarding theprisoners of Badr, and the latter said: 'They are your people and clan, let them go!' But when he consulted'Umar, the latter said: 'Kill them'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, freed them inexchange for a ransom. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives untilhe hath made slaughter in the land) up to his words (Now enjoy what ye have won, as lawful and good…)[8:69]. When the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, met 'Umar, he said to him: 'We almostincurred a misfortune as a result of opposing your view!' ” Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Hiri informedus> Hajib ibn Ahmad> Muhammad ibn Hammad> Abu Mu'awiyah> al-A'mash> 'Amr ibn Murrah> Abu'Ubaydah> 'Abd Allah who said: “When the prisoners were brought on the Day of Badr, the Messenger ofAllah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'What do you think we should do with these prisoners?' AbuBakr said: 'O Messenger of Allah, these are your people and kin, spare them and wait that haply Allah,glorious and majestic is He, may relent on them'. 'Umar, on the other hand said: 'They have given you thelie and expelled you, bring them forward and chop their heads off'. 'Abd Allah ibn Rawahah said: 'Look for avalley with abundant wood and burn them there', upon which al-'Abbas commented: 'You have severed yourties of kinship!' The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, did not answer them and thenwent in. Some people said: 'He will act on Abu Bakr's advice', others said: 'He will act on 'Umar's advice',while some said: 'He will act on 'Abd Allah's advice'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, then came out to them and said: 'Indeed, Allah, glorious and majestic is He, softens the hearts ofsome until they become softer than milk and hardens the hearts of some until they become harder thanstones. The like of you, O Abu Bakr, is the like of Abraham when he said (But whoso followeth me, he verilyis of me. And whoso disobeyeth me - still Thou art Forgiving, Merciful) [14:36] and the like of you, O AbuBakr, is the like of Jesus when he said (If Thou punish them, lo! They are Thy slaves, and if Thou forgivethem, lo! Thou, only Thou art the Mighty, the Wise) [8:118]. And the like of you, O 'Umar, is the like ofMoses who said (Our Lord! Destroy their riches and harden their hearts…)' [10:88]; and the like of you, O'Umar, is the like of Noah who said: (My Lord! Leave not one of the disbelievers in the land) [71:26]. Then,the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'Today, you are dependent, you are todaydependent; none of them shall be returned except in exchange for a ransom or he will be beheaded'. Allah,glorious and majestic is He, then revealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath madeslaughter in the land) up to his words (Now enjoy what ye have won, as lawful and good) up to the end ofthe next three verses”. 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hamdan al-'Adl informed us> Ahmad ibn Ja'far ibn Malik> 'AbdAllah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal> Ahmad ibn Hanbal> Abu Nuh Qurrad> 'Ikrimah ibn 'Ammar> Simak al-HanafiAbu Zumayl> Ibn 'Abbas> 'Umar ibn al-Khattab who said: “When the army of the believers met the army ofthe unbelievers at Badr and the idolaters were defeated (seventy men of them were killed and anotherseventy captured), the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consulted Abu Bakr, 'Umarand 'Ali about what to do with the prisoners. Abu Bakr said: 'O Prophet of Allah, these are our brothers,cousins and sons of our clan and my opinion is that you accept a ransom from them, so that what we takefrom them will be an added strength for us against the unbelievers. And haply Allah will guide them to Islamand be a support to us'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, then asked: 'What doyou think, O son of al-Khattab?' He said: 'By Allah, I do not agree with Abu Bakr. My opinion is that you giveme so-and-so (a relative of 'Umar) so that I behead him, and give 'Aqil to 'Ali so that he behead him and soand-so (al-'Abbas ) to Hamzah so that he beheads him. In this way, Allah, glorious and majestic is He, willknow that there is no complaisance in our hearts toward the idolaters. These are their notables, leaders andchiefs'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, liked what Abu Bakr said and dislikedwhat I said. And so, he accepted a ransom from them. The following day, 'Umar said: I went to see theProphet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and found him sitting with Abu Bakr. They were both crying. Isaid: 'O Messenger of Allah, what is it that makes you and your companion weep? If I can cry, I will cry withyou, if not I will feign crying'. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: “I am crying becauseof the suggestion of ransoming the prisoners which your fellow believers advised me to do. Yourchastisement was closer to you than this tree (and he pointed to a near by tree). Allah, exalted is He, hadrevealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land) up to Hiswords (… an awful doom had come upon you on account of what ye took) of ransom. This was narrated byMuslim in his Sahih from Hannad ibn al-Sariyy from Ibn al-Mubarak from 'Ikrimah ibn 'Ammar.
وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلاَّ يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُواْ أَوْلِيَآءَهُ إِنْ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُ إِلاَّ الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ - وَمَا كَانَ صَلاَتُهُمْ عِندَ الْبَيْتِ إِلاَّ مُكَآءً وَتَصْدِيَةً فَذُوقُواْ الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ
(34. And why should not Allah punish them while they hinder (men) from Al-Masjid Al-Haram, and they are not its guardians None can be its guardians except those who have Taqwa, but most of them know not.)
(35. Their Salah at the House was nothing but Muka' and Tasdiyah. Therefore taste the punishment because you used to disbelieve.)
Allah states that the idolators deserved the torment, but He did not torment them in honor of the Prophet residing among them. After Allah allowed the Prophet to migrate away from them, He sent His torment upon them on the day of Badr. During that battle, the chief pagans were killed, or captured. Allah also directed them to seek forgiveness for the sins, Shirk and wickedness they indulged in. If it was not for the fact that there were some weak Muslims living among the Makkan pagans, those Muslims who invoked Allah for His forgiveness, Allah would have sent down to them the torment that could never be averted. Allah did not do that on account of the weak, ill-treated, and oppressed believers living among them, as He reiterated about the day at Al-Hudaybiyyah,
هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفاً أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ وَلَوْلاَ رِجَالٌ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَآءٌ مُّؤْمِنَـتٌ لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكمْ مِّنْهُمْ مَّعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لِّيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُواْ لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْهُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً
(They are the ones who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) and detained the sacrificial animals from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills if they (the believers and the disbelievers) had been apart, We verily, would have punished those of them who disbelieved with painful torment.) 48:25 Allah said here,
وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلاَّ يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُواْ أَوْلِيَآءَهُ إِنْ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُ إِلاَّ الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ
(And why should not Allah punish them while they hinder (men) from Al-Masjid Al-Haram, and they are not its guardians None can be its guardians except those who have Taqwa, but most of them know not.) Allah asks, `why would not He torment them while they are stopping Muslims from going to Al-Masjid Al-Haram, thus hindering the believers, its own people, from praying and performing Tawaf in it' Allah said,
وَمَا كَانُواْ أَوْلِيَآءَهُ إِنْ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُ إِلاَّ الْمُتَّقُونَ
T(And they are not its guardians None can be its guardians except those who have Taqwa,) meaning, the Prophet and his Companions are the true dwellers (or worthy maintainers) of Al-Masjid Al-Haram, not the pagans. Allah said in other Ayah,
مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يَعْمُرُواْ مَسَاجِدَ الله شَـهِدِينَ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِم بِالْكُفْرِ أُوْلَـئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ وَفِى النَّارِ هُمْ خَـلِدُونَ - إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَـجِدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ ءَامَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَوةَ وَءاتَى الزَّكَوةَ وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلاَّ اللَّهَ فَعَسَى أُوْلَـئِكَ أَن يَكُونُواْ مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ
(It is not for the polytheists, to maintain the Masjids of Allah, while they witness disbelief against themselves. The works of such are in vain and in the Fire shall they abide. The Masjids of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day; perform the Salah, and give the Zakah and fear none but Allah. It is they who are on true guidance.) 9:17-18, and,
وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللَّهِ
(But a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants,) 2:217. `Urwah, As-Suddi and Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Allah's statement,
إِنْ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُ إِلاَّ الْمُتَّقُونَ
(None can be its guardians except those who have Taqwa,) refers to Muhammad and his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. Mujahid explained that this Ayah is about the Mujahidin in Allah's cause, whomever and wherever they may be. Allah then mentioned the practice of the pagans next to Al-Masjid Al-Haram and the respect they observed in its vicinity,
وَمَا كَانَ صَلاَتُهُمْ عِندَ الْبَيْتِ إِلاَّ مُكَآءً وَتَصْدِيَةً
(Their Salah (prayer) at the House was nothing but Muka' and Tasdiyah. ) `Abdullah bin `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Raja' Al-Utardi, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Hujr bin `Anbas, Nubayt bin Sharit, Qatadah and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that this part of the Ayah refers to whistling. Mujahid added that the pagans used to place their fingers in their mouth (while whistling). Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,
وَمَا كَانَ صَلاَتُهُمْ عِندَ الْبَيْتِ إِلاَّ مُكَآءً وَتَصْدِيَةً
(Their Salat at the House was nothing but Muka' and Tasdiyah.) "The Quraysh used to perform Tawaf (encircling the Ka`bah) while naked, whistling and clapping their hands, for Muka' means `whistling', while, Tasdiyah means `clapping the hands.''' This meaning was also reported from Ibn `Abbas, by `Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-`Awfi. Similar was recorded from Ibn `Umar, Mujahid, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Abu Salamah bin `Abdur-Rahman, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi, Hujr bin `Anbas and Ibn Abza. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Umar explained the Ayah,
وَمَا كَانَ صَلاَتُهُمْ عِندَ الْبَيْتِ إِلاَّ مُكَآءً وَتَصْدِيَةً
(Their Salat at the House was nothing but Muka' and Tasdiyah.) "Muka' means `whistling', while, `Tasdiyah' means `clapping the hands.''' Sa`id bin Jubayr and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd said that,
(and Tasdiyah), means, they hindered from the path of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. Allah said,
فَذُوقُواْ الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ
(Therefore taste the punishment because you used to disbelieve.) This refers to the death and capture that they suffered during the battle of Badr, according to Ad-Dahhak, Ibn Jurayj and Muhammad bin Ishaq.
Dan Allah telah melakukannya dengan mengazab mereka di Badar dan lainnya.
Yaitu Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam dan para sahabatnya.
Untuk melakukan thawaf.
Seperti yang mereka sangka. Kata-kata âwa maa kaanuu awliyaaâahâ, dhamir (kata ganti) hu (dia) bisa kembalinya kepada Allah, sehingga artinya bahwa âmereka bukanlah wali-wali-Nya,â dan bisa juga kembali kepada Masjidilharam, sehingga artinya, bahwa âmereka bukanlah orang-orang yang berhak menguasainya.â
Oleh karena ketidaktahuan mereka, akhirnya mereka mengaku berhak.
Imam Bukhari meriwayatkan dari Anas bin Malik, ia berkata: Abu Jahal berkata, âYa Allah, jika (Al Quran) ini benar (wahyu) dari Engkau, maka hujanilah kami dengan batu dari langit, atau datangkanlah kepada kami azab yang pedih.â Maka turunlah ayat, âWa maa kaanallahu liyuâadzdzibahum wa anta fiihimâ¦dst sampai wa hum yashudduuna âanil masjidil haraamâ¦dst.â Lihat surat Al Anfaal: 33-34.