وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِنْ قَوْمٍ خِيَانَةً فَانْبِذْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَىٰ سَوَاءٍ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْخَائِنِينَ
If you [have reason to] fear from a people betrayal, throw [their treaty] back to them, [putting you] on equal terms. Indeed, Allah does not like traitors.
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(It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land…) [8:67-69]. SaidMujahid: “It happened that some of that which was revealed from heaven agreed with many of 'Umar'sopinions. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consulted the Muslims aboutthe prisoners of Badr, they said: 'O Messenger of Allah, they are your cousins, so free them in exchange fora ransom'. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said: 'No, O Messenger of Allah, you should kill them'. Then this verse wasrevealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land)”. Said Ibn'Umar: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consulted Abu Bakr regarding theprisoners of Badr, and the latter said: 'They are your people and clan, let them go!' But when he consulted'Umar, the latter said: 'Kill them'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, freed them inexchange for a ransom. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives untilhe hath made slaughter in the land) up to his words (Now enjoy what ye have won, as lawful and good…)[8:69]. When the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, met 'Umar, he said to him: 'We almostincurred a misfortune as a result of opposing your view!' ” Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Hiri informedus> Hajib ibn Ahmad> Muhammad ibn Hammad> Abu Mu'awiyah> al-A'mash> 'Amr ibn Murrah> Abu'Ubaydah> 'Abd Allah who said: “When the prisoners were brought on the Day of Badr, the Messenger ofAllah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'What do you think we should do with these prisoners?' AbuBakr said: 'O Messenger of Allah, these are your people and kin, spare them and wait that haply Allah,glorious and majestic is He, may relent on them'. 'Umar, on the other hand said: 'They have given you thelie and expelled you, bring them forward and chop their heads off'. 'Abd Allah ibn Rawahah said: 'Look for avalley with abundant wood and burn them there', upon which al-'Abbas commented: 'You have severed yourties of kinship!' The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, did not answer them and thenwent in. Some people said: 'He will act on Abu Bakr's advice', others said: 'He will act on 'Umar's advice',while some said: 'He will act on 'Abd Allah's advice'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, then came out to them and said: 'Indeed, Allah, glorious and majestic is He, softens the hearts ofsome until they become softer than milk and hardens the hearts of some until they become harder thanstones. The like of you, O Abu Bakr, is the like of Abraham when he said (But whoso followeth me, he verilyis of me. And whoso disobeyeth me - still Thou art Forgiving, Merciful) [14:36] and the like of you, O AbuBakr, is the like of Jesus when he said (If Thou punish them, lo! They are Thy slaves, and if Thou forgivethem, lo! Thou, only Thou art the Mighty, the Wise) [8:118]. And the like of you, O 'Umar, is the like ofMoses who said (Our Lord! Destroy their riches and harden their hearts…)' [10:88]; and the like of you, O'Umar, is the like of Noah who said: (My Lord! Leave not one of the disbelievers in the land) [71:26]. Then,the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'Today, you are dependent, you are todaydependent; none of them shall be returned except in exchange for a ransom or he will be beheaded'. Allah,glorious and majestic is He, then revealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath madeslaughter in the land) up to his words (Now enjoy what ye have won, as lawful and good) up to the end ofthe next three verses”. 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hamdan al-'Adl informed us> Ahmad ibn Ja'far ibn Malik> 'AbdAllah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal> Ahmad ibn Hanbal> Abu Nuh Qurrad> 'Ikrimah ibn 'Ammar> Simak al-HanafiAbu Zumayl> Ibn 'Abbas> 'Umar ibn al-Khattab who said: “When the army of the believers met the army ofthe unbelievers at Badr and the idolaters were defeated (seventy men of them were killed and anotherseventy captured), the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, consulted Abu Bakr, 'Umarand 'Ali about what to do with the prisoners. Abu Bakr said: 'O Prophet of Allah, these are our brothers,cousins and sons of our clan and my opinion is that you accept a ransom from them, so that what we takefrom them will be an added strength for us against the unbelievers. And haply Allah will guide them to Islamand be a support to us'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, then asked: 'What doyou think, O son of al-Khattab?' He said: 'By Allah, I do not agree with Abu Bakr. My opinion is that you giveme so-and-so (a relative of 'Umar) so that I behead him, and give 'Aqil to 'Ali so that he behead him and soand-so (al-'Abbas ) to Hamzah so that he beheads him. In this way, Allah, glorious and majestic is He, willknow that there is no complaisance in our hearts toward the idolaters. These are their notables, leaders andchiefs'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, liked what Abu Bakr said and dislikedwhat I said. And so, he accepted a ransom from them. The following day, 'Umar said: I went to see theProphet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and found him sitting with Abu Bakr. They were both crying. Isaid: 'O Messenger of Allah, what is it that makes you and your companion weep? If I can cry, I will cry withyou, if not I will feign crying'. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: “I am crying becauseof the suggestion of ransoming the prisoners which your fellow believers advised me to do. Yourchastisement was closer to you than this tree (and he pointed to a near by tree). Allah, exalted is He, hadrevealed (It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land) up to Hiswords (… an awful doom had come upon you on account of what ye took) of ransom. This was narrated byMuslim in his Sahih from Hannad ibn al-Sariyy from Ibn al-Mubarak from 'Ikrimah ibn 'Ammar.
وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِن قَوْمٍ خِيَانَةً فَانبِذْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَى سَوَآءٍ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الخَـئِنِينَ
(58. If you fear treachery from any people, throw back (their covenant) to them (so as to be) on equal terms. Certainly Allah likes not the treacherous.) make a heading, Allah says to His Prophet ,
وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِن قَوْمٍ
(If you fear from any people), with whom you have a treaty of peace,
(treachery), and betrayal of peace treaties and agreements that you have conducted with them,
(then throw back (their covenant) to them), meaning their treaty of peace.
(on equal terms), informing them that you are severing the treaty. This way, you will be on equal terms, in that, you and they will be aware that a state of war exists between you and that the bilateral peace treaty is null and void,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الخَـئِنِينَ
(Certainly Allah likes not the treacherous. ) This even includes treachery against the disbelievers. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salim bin `Amir said, "Mu`awiyah was leading an army in Roman lands, at a time the bilateral peace treaty was valid. He wanted to go closer to their forces so that when the treaty of peace ended, he could invade them. An old man riding on his animal said, `Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Great), Allahu Akbar! Be honest and stay away from betrayal.' The Messenger of Allah said,
«وَمَنْ كَانَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ قَوْمٍ عَهْدٌ فَلَا يَحُلَّنَّ عُقْدَةً وَلَا يَشُدَّهَا حَتَّى يَنْقَضِي أَمَدُهَا، أَوْ يَنْبُذَ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَى سَوَاء»
(Whoever has a treaty of peace with a people, then he should not untie any part of it or tie it harder until the treaty reaches its appointed term. Or, he should declare the treaty null and void so that they are both on equal terms.) When Mu`awiyah was informed of the Prophet's statement, he retreated. They found that man to be `Amr bin `Anbasah, may Allah be pleased with him.'' This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''
Misalnya ada qarinah (tanda) dari keadaan mereka yang menunjukkan khianatnya mereka meskipun tidak secara tegas.
Yakni sama-sama mengetahui bahwa perjanjian dibatalkan agar mereka tidak menuduh engkau mengkhianati janji setelahnya. Mafhum ayat ini adalah bahwa jika tidak dikhawatirkan adanya pengkhianatan dari mereka, misalnya keadaan mereka menunjukkan bahwa mereka akan menjaga baik-baik perjanjian itu, maka wajib dipenuhi sampai habis waktunya.