Surah At-Tawba Verse 12

وَإِنْ نَكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ عَهْدِهِمْ وَطَعَنُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ فَقَاتِلُوا أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ ۙ إِنَّهُمْ لَا أَيْمَانَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنْتَهُونَ

And if they break their oaths after their treaty and defame your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief, for indeed, there are no oaths [sacred] to them; [fight them that] they might cease.

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(And if they break their pledges after their treaty (hath been made with you) and assail your religion, thenfight the heads of disbelief…) [9:12]. Said Ibn 'Abbas: “This verse was revealed about Abu Sufyan ibn Harb,al-Harith ibn Hisham, Suhayl ibn 'Amr, 'Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl and all the chiefs of Quraysh who broke theirpledges, and these are the ones who planned to expel the Messenger of Allah”.

وَإِن نَّكَثُواْ أَيْمَـنَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ عَهْدِهِمْ وَطَعَنُواْ فِى دِينِكُمْ فَقَـتِلُواْ أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ إِنَّهُمْ لاَ أَيْمَـنَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنتَهُونَ

(12. But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and attack your religion with disapproval and criticism, then fight (you) against the leaders of disbelief -- for surely, their oaths are nothing to them -- so that they may stop (evil actions).)

The Oaths of the Leaders of Disbelief mean nothing to Them

Allah says, if the idolators with whom you conducted peace treaties for an appointed term break

(their oaths) meaning, terms of their treaties, and covenants

وَطَعَنُواْ فِى دِينِكُمْ

(and attack your religion...) with disapproval and criticism, it is because of this that one who curses the Messenger, peace be upon him, or attacks the religion of Islam by way of criticism and disapproval, they are to be fought. This is why Allah said afterwards,

فَقَـتِلُواْ أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ إِنَّهُمْ لاَ أَيْمَـنَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنتَهُونَ

(then fight (you) against the leaders of disbelief -- for surely, their oaths are nothing to them -- so that they may stop.) so that they may refrain from the disbelief, rebellion and the transgression they indulge in. Qatadah and others said that the leaders of disbelief were Abu Jahl, `Utbah and Shaybah, Umayyah bin Khalaf, and he went on to mention several others. Al-A`mash narrated from Zayd bin Wahb from Hudhayfah; "The people of this Ayah were never fought again.'' A similar statement was reported from `Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him. However, this Ayah is general, even though the specific reason behind revealing it was the idolators of Quraysh. So this Ayah generally applies to them and others as well, Allah knows best. Al-Walid bin Muslim said that Safwan bin `Amr narrated that `Abdur-Rahman bin Jubayr bin Nufayr said that when Abu Bakr sent an army to Ash-Sham, he advised them, "You will find some people with shaved heads. Therefore, strike the swords upon the parts that contain the devil, for by Allah, it is better to me to kill one of these people than to kill seventy other men. This is because Allah said,

فَقَـتِلُواْ أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ

(then fight (you) against the leaders of disbelief.)'' Ibn Abi Hatim collected it.

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Submit : 2015-04-01 02:13:31
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