رَضُوا بِأَنْ يَكُونُوا مَعَ الْخَوَالِفِ وَطُبِعَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ
They were satisfied to be with those who stay behind, and their hearts were sealed over, so they do not understand.
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(And (there are) others who have acknowledged their faults…) [9:102-103]. Ibn al-Walibi reported that Ibn'Abbas said: “This verse was revealed about some people who failed to join the Messenger of Allah, Allahbless him and give him peace, at the Battle of Tabuk and then regretted it, saying: 'We are enjoying shelterand shade with the women while the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and hisCompanions are engaging in Jihad. By Allah, we shall tie ourselves to the columns [of the mosque] andremain tied until the Messenger himself unties and pardons us'. And they tied themselves to the columns ofthe mosque. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, returned from the battle, hepassed by them and asked about who they were. He was told: 'These are the people who failed to join you.They vowed to remain in their position until you untie them yourself'. The Prophet, Allah bless him and givehim peace, said: 'And I swear that I will not set them free until I am commanded to do so nor will I pardonthem unless it is Allah Who pardons them first. They have failed to join me and shunned fighting alongsidethe Muslims'. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse. When it was revealed, the Messenger of Allah,Allah bless him and give him peace, sent for them, freed them and pardoned them. When they were freed,they said: 'O Messenger of Allah, these are our riches which caused us to fail to join you, spend them oncharity on our behalves to purify us and ask forgiveness for us'. He said: 'I was not commanded to takeanything from your riches'. Allah, glorious and majestic is He, then revealed (Take alms of their wealth,wherewith thou mayst purify them and mayst make them grow…) [9:103]”. Said Ibn 'Abbas: “They were tenmen”.
وَإِذَآ أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ أَنْ ءَامِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَجَـهِدُواْ مَعَ رَسُولِهِ اسْتَأْذَنَكَ أُوْلُواْ الطَّوْلِ مِنْهُمْ وَقَالُواْ ذَرْنَا نَكُنْ مَّعَ الْقَـعِدِينَ - رَضُواْ بِأَن يَكُونُواْ مَعَ الْخَوَلِفِ وَطُبِعَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لاَ يَفْقَهُونَ
(86. And when a Surah is revealed, enjoining them to believe in Allah and to strive hard and fight along with His Messenger, the wealthy among them ask your leave to exempt them and say, "Leave us (behind), we would be with those who sit (at home).'')
(87. They are content to be with those who sit behind. Their hearts are sealed up, so they understand not.)
Allah chastises and admonishes those who stayed away from Jihad and refrained from performing it, even though they had the supplies, means and ability to join it. They asked the Messenger for permission to stay behind, saying,
ذَرْنَا نَكُنْ مَّعَ الْقَـعِدِينَ
("Leave us (behind), we would be with those who sit (at home)'') thus accepting for themselves the shame of lagging behind with women, after the army had left. If war starts, such people are the most cowardice, but when it is safe, they are the most boastful among men. Allah described them in another Ayah,
فَإِذَا جَآءَ الْخَوْفُ رَأَيْتَهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ تَدورُ أَعْيُنُهُمْ كَالَّذِى يُغْشَى عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ فَإِذَا ذَهَبَ الْخَوْفُ سَلَقُوكُم بِأَلْسِنَةٍ حِدَادٍ
(Then when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes revolving like (those of) one over whom hovers death; but when the fear departs, they will smite you with sharp tongues.)33:19 their tongues direct their harsh words against you, when it is safe to do so. In battle, however, they are the most cowardice among men. Allah said in another Ayah,
وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَوْلاَ نُزِّلَتْ سُورَةٌ فَإِذَآ أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ مُّحْكَمَةٌ وَذُكِرَ فِيهَا الْقِتَالُ رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ نَظَرَ الْمَغْشِىِّ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ فَأَوْلَى لَهُمْ - طَاعَةٌ وَقَوْلٌ مَّعْرُوفٌ فَإِذَا عَزَمَ الاٌّمْرُ فَلَوْ صَدَقُواْ اللَّهَ لَكَانَ خَيْراً لَّهُمْ
(Those who believe say: "Why is not a Surah sent down (for us) But when a decisive Surah (explaining and ordering things) is sent down, and fighting is mentioned therein, you will see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at you with a look of one fainting to death. But it was better for them. Obedience (to Allah) and good words (were better for them). And when the matter is resolved on, then if they had been true to Allah, it would have been better for them.) 47:20-21 sAllah said next,
وَطُبِعَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ
(Their hearts are sealed up) because of their staying away from Jihad and from accompanying the Messenger in Allah's cause,
فَهُمْ لاَ يَفْقَهُونَ
(so they understand not.) they neither understand what benefits them so that they perform it nor what hurts them so that they avoid it.
لَـكِنِ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَعَهُ جَـهَدُواْ بِأَمْوَلِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمُ الْخَيْرَاتُ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
Karena kemunafikan mereka dan karena apa yang ada dalam hati mereka berupa penyakit, keraguan, dan sifat pengecut sehingga membuat mereka senang meninggalkan Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam.
Yaitu wanita-wanita, anak-anak, orang-orang lemah, orang-orang yang sakit dan orang-orang yang sudah tua.
Mereka tidak memahami hal yang bermaslahat bagi mereka dan tidak ada lagi keinginan untuk mengerjakan perbuatan yang di sana terdapat kebaikan dan keberuntungan.