فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۗ وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَامَىٰ ۖ قُلْ إِصْلَاحٌ لَهُمْ خَيْرٌ ۖ وَإِنْ تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَأَعْنَتَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
To this world and the Hereafter. And they ask you about orphans. Say, "Improvement for them is best. And if you mix your affairs with theirs - they are your brothers. And Allah knows the corrupter from the amender. And if Allah had willed, He could have put you in difficulty. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.
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(And they question thee concerning orphans…) [2:220]. Abu Mansur ‘Abd al-Qahir ibn Tahir informed us>Abu’l-Hasan Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Sarraj> al-Hasan ibn al-Muthanna ibn Mu‘adh> Abu HudhayfahMusa ibn Mas‘ud> Sufyan al-Thawri> Salim al-Aftas> Sa‘id ibn Jubayr who said: “When the verse (Lo! Thosewho devour the wealth of orphans wrongfully, they do but swallow fire into their bellies…) [4:10] peoplerushed to separate their own wealth from the wealth of orphans they were in charge of. Then Allah revealed(And if ye mingle your affairs with theirs, then (they are) your brothers) upon which they mixed their ownwealth with the wealth of orphans”. Sa‘id ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Zahid informed us> Abu ‘Ali al-Faqih> ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Baghawi> ‘Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah> Jarir> ‘Ata’ ibn al-Sa’ib> Sa‘id ibnJubayr> Ibn ‘Abbas who said: “When Allah, exalted is He, revealed the verse (And approach not the wealthof the orphan save with that which is better…), whoever had an orphan’s wealth with him proceeded toisolate his food and drink from the orphan’s food and drink, and whatever remained of the orphan’s foodwas kept aside until the orphan would use it or it gets bad; and this was a source of anguish for people.They went and mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and as aresponse, Allah, glorified and exalted, revealed (And they question thee concerning orphans. Say: Toimprove their lot is best), by mixing their food and drink with their food and drink”.
يَسْـئَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَـفِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا وَيَسْـئَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ كَذلِكَ يُبيّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الآيَـتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِى الدُّنْيَا وَالاْخِرَةِ وَيَسْـئَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَـمَى قُلْ إِصْلاَحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ وَإِن تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْونُكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ وَلَوْ شَآء اللَّهُ لاعْنَتَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
(219. They ask you (O Muhammad ) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.'' And they ask you what they ought to spend. Say: "That which is (spare) beyond your needs.'' Thus Allah makes clear to you His Laws in order that you may give thought.)
(220. In (to) this worldly life and in the Hereafter. And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: "The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers. And Allah knows (the one) who means mischief (e.g., to swallow their property) from (the one) who means good (e.g., to save their property). And if Allah had wished, He could have put you into difficulties. Truly, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.'')
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Maysarah said that `Umar once said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr!'' Allah sent down the Ayah of Surat Al-Baqarah:
يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ
(They ask you (O Muhammad ) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin...) `Umar was then summoned and the Ayah was recited to him. Yet, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.'' Then, this Ayah that is in Surat An-Nisa' was revealed:
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَـرَى
(O you who believe! Approach not As-Salah (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state.) (4:43) Then, when the prayer was called for, a person used to herald on behalf of Allah's Messenger , "No drunk person should attend the prayer.'' `Umar was summoned again and the Ayah was recited to him. Yet, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.'' Then, the Ayah that is in Surat Al-Ma'idah was revealed, `Umar was again summoned and the Ayah was recited to him. When he reached:
فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ
(So, will you not then abstain) (5:91) he said, "We did abstain, we did abstain.'' This is also the narration that Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasai collected in their books. `Ali bin Al-Madini and At-Tirmidhi said that the chain of narrators for this Hadith is sound and authentic. We will mention this Hadith again along with what Imam Ahmad collected by Abu Hurayrah Allah's saying in Surat Al-Ma'idah:
إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
(Intoxicants and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Satan's handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful.) (5:90) Allah said:
يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ
(They ask you (O Muhammad ) concerning alcoholic drinks and gambling.) As for Al-Khamr, `Umar bin Khattab, the Leader of the faithful, used to say, "It includes all what intoxicates the mind.'' We will also mention this statement in the explanation of Surat Al-Ma'idah, along with the topic of gambling. Allah said:
قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَـفِعُ لِلنَّاسِ
(Say: In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men.) As for the harm that the Khamr and gambling cause, it effects the religion. As for their benefit, it is material, including benefit for the body, digesting the food, getting rid of the excrements, sharpening the mind, bringing about a joyous sensation and financially benefiting from their sale. Also, (their benefit includes) earnings through gambling that one uses to spend on his family and on himself. Yet, these benefits are outweighed by the clear harm that they cause which affects the mind and the religion. This is why Allah said:
وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا
(...but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.) This Ayah was the beginning of the process of prohibiting Khamr, not explicity, but it only implied this meaning. So when this Ayah was recited to `Umar, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.'' Soon after, Allah sent down a clear prohibition of Khamr in Surat Al-Ma'idah:
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ - إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَـنُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَآءَ فِى الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَوةِ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ
(O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan's handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. Shaytan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from As-Salah (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain) (5:90, 91) We will mention this subject, by the will of Allah, when we explain Surat Al-Ma'idah. Ibn `Umar, Ash-Sha`bi, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and `Abdur-Rahman bin Aslam stated that the first Ayah revealed about Khamr was:
يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ
(They ask you about Khamr and gambling. Say: "In them there is great sin.'') (2:219) Then, the Ayah in Surat An-Nisa' was revealed (on this subject) and then the Ayah in Surat Al-Ma'idah which prohibited Khamr.
وَيَسْـَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ
(And they ask you what they ought to spend. Say: "That which is (spare) beyond your needs.'') Al-Hakam said that Miqsam said that Ibn `Abbas said that this Ayah means, whatever you can spare above the needs of your family. This is also the opinion of Ibn `Umar, Mujahid, `Ata', `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Al-Qasim, Salim, `Ata' Al-Khurasani and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Ibn Jarir related that Abu Hurayrah said that a man said, "O Messenger of Allah! I have a Dinar (a currency).'' The Prophet said:
«أَنْفِقْهُ عَلى نَفْسِك»
(Spend it you on yourself.) He said, "I have another Dinar.'' He said:
«أَنْفِقْهُ عَلى أَهْلِك»
(Spend it on your wife.) He said, "I have another Dinar.'' He said:
«أَنْفِقْهُ عَلى وَلَدِك»
(Spend it on your offspring.) He said, "I have another Dinar.'' He said:
(You have better knowledge (meaning how and where to spend it in charity).) Muslim also recorded this Hadith in his Sahih. Muslim recorded that Jabir said that Allah's Messenger said to a man:
«ابْدَأْ بِنَفْسِكَ فَتَصَدَّقْ عَلَيْهَا، فَإِنْ فَضَلَ شَيْءٌ فَلِأَهْلِكَ، فَإِنْ فَضَلَ شَيْءٌ عَنْ أَهْلِكَ فَلِذِي قَرَابَتِكَ، فَإِنْ فَضَلَ عَنْ ذِي قَرَابَتِكَ شَيْءٌ فَهكَذَا وَهكَذَا»
(Start with yourself and grant it some charity. If anything remains, then spend it on your family. If anything remains, then spend it on your relatives. If anything remains, then spend it like this and like that (i.e., on various charitable purposes).) A Hadith states:
«ابْنَ آدَمَ إِنَّكَ أَنْ تَبْذُلَ الْفَضْلَ خَيْرٌ لَكَ، وَأَنْ تُمْسِكَهُ شَرٌّ لَكَ، وَلَا تُلَامُ عَلى كَفَاف»
(O son of Adam! If you spend whatever you can spare, it would be better for you; but if you keep it, it would be worse for you. You shall not be blamed for whatever is barely sufficient.) Allah said:
كَذلِكَ يُبيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الآيَـتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَفِى الدُّنُيَا وَالاٌّخِرَةِ
(Thus Allah makes clear to you His Ayat in order that you may give thought. In (to) this worldly life and in the Hereafter.) meaning, just as He stated and explained these commandments for you, He also explains the rest of His Ayat regarding the commandments and His promises and warnings, so that you might give thought in this life and the Hereafter. `Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas commented, "Meaning about the imminent demise and the brevity of this life, and the imminent commencement of the Hereafter and its continuity.'' a
وَيَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَـمَى قُلْ إِصْلاَحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ وَإِن تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَنُكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ وَلَوْ شَآءَ اللَّهُ لأَعْنَتَكُمْ
(And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: "The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers. And Allah knows him who means mischief (e.g., to swallow their property) from him who means good (e.g., to save their property). And if Allah had wished, He could have put you into difficulties.) Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "When the Ayat:
وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ
(And come not near to the orphan's property, except to improve it.) (6:152) and
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَلَ الْيَتَـمَى ظُلْماً إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِى بُطُونِهِمْ نَاراً وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيراً
(Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!) (4:10) were revealed, those who took care of some orphans, separated their food and drink from the orphans' food and drink. When some of the orphans' food and drink remained, they would keep it for them until they eat it or otherwise get spoiled. This situation was difficult for them and they mentioned this subject to Allah's Messenger .
وَيَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَـمَى قُلْ إِصْلاَحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ وَإِن تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَنُكُمْ
(And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: "The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers.) Hence, they joined their food and drink with the food and drink of the orphans.'' This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak. Several others said similarly about the circumstances surrounding the revelation of the Ayah (2:220), including Mujahid, `Ata', Ash-Sha`bi, Ibn Abu Layla, Qatadah and others among the Salaf and those after them. Ibn Jarir reported that `A'ishah said, "I dislike that an orphan's money be under my care, unless I mix my food with his food and my drink with his drink.'' Allah said:
قُلْ إِصْلاَحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ
(Say: The best thing is to work honestly in their property.) meaning, on the one hand (i.e., this is required in any case). Allah then said:
وَإِن تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَنُكُمْ
(...and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers.) meaning, there is no harm if you mix your food and drink with their food and drink, since they are your brothers in the religion. This is why Allah said afterwards:
وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ
(And Allah knows (the one) who means mischief (e.g., to swallow their property) from (the one) who means good (e.g., to save their property). ) meaning, He knows those whose intent is to cause mischief or righteousness. He also said:
وَلَوْ شَآءَ اللَّهُ لأَعْنَتَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
(And if Allah had wished, He could have put you into difficulties. Truly, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise) meaning, if Allah wills, He will make this matter difficult for you. But, He made it easy for you, and allowed you to mix your affairs with the orphans' affairs in a way that is better. Similarly, Allah said:
وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ
(And come not near to the orphan's property, except to improve it.) (6:152) Allah has thus allowed spending from the orphan's estate by its executor, in reasonable proportions, on the condition that he has the intention to compensate the orphan later on, when he can afford it. We will mention about it in detail in Surat An-Nisa' by Allah's will.
Dengan begitu, kita memiliki kecakapan dalam menjalani hidup di dunia dan mengetahui hakikat hidup hidup di dunia, dan kita pun mengenal tentang kehidupan akhirat, di mana ia merupakan kehidupan yang kekal dan tempat pembalasan sehingga kita lebih mengutamakannya.
Yakni bagaimana seharusnya sikap kamu terhadap mereka dan harta mereka. Ketika turun ayat ancaman memakan harta anak yatim secara zalim, yaitu pada surat An Nisaa': 10, maka kaum muslimin memisahkan makanan mereka dengan makanan anak yatim karena khawatir memakan harta anak yatim, sampai dalam hal seperti ini, yakni dalam hal yang biasanya harta anak yatim bercampur dengan harta mereka, mereka pun bertanya kepada Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam tentang masalah tersebut, maka turunlah ayat di atas menerangkan bahwa tujuan utamanya adalah memperbaiki harta anak yatim, memelihara dan mengembangkannya dan bahwa mencampurkan harta mereka dengan harta anak yatim adalah boleh selama tidak memadharatkan anak yatim, karena mereka adalah saudara kita, di mana saudara biasanya mencampurkan harta dengan saudaranya. Oleh karena itu, yang perlu dijaga adalah niat dan amal, barang siapa berniat baik dan bermaksud memperbaiki harta anak yatim serta tidak berharap apa-apa terhadap hartanya, maka jika terjadi sedikit percampuran tanpa disengaja, ia tidaklah berdosa. Sebaliknya, barang siapa yang berniat buruk, missalnya percampuran yang dilakukannya agar dapat memakan harta anak yatim, maka seperti itulah yang berdosa, sebagaimana ka'idah "Al Wasaa'il lahaa ahkaamul maqaashid" (wasilah tergantung tujuan). Dalam ayat ini terdapat dalil bolehnya mencampurkan harta kita dengan anak yatim ketika makan, minum, mengadakan 'akad dsb. Hal ini merupakan rukhshah (keringanan) dari Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala.
Dalam mengurus anak yatim prinsip kita berdasarkan ayat ini adalah "melakukan yang terbaik atau yang lebih bermaslahat bagi mereka"
Ada yang mengartikan "jika kamu mencampurkan nafkah belanja kamu dengan nafkah belanja mereka", maka mereka (anak yatim) tersebut adalah saudara kita, yakni tidak mengapa karena mereka adalah saudara kita, di mana saudara itu biasanya mencampurkan harta dengan saudaranya.
Orang yang mengadakan kerusakan adalah orang yang menyia-nyiakan harta anak yatim ketika dirinya diserahi untuk mengurus harta mereka, sedangkan orang yang mengadakan kebaikan adalah orang yang mengurus harta mereka dengan kepengurusan yang bermaslahat bagi mereka.
Allah memiliki kekuatan yang sempurna dan kekuasaan terhadap segala sesuatu, namun Dia Maha Bijaksana, yakni tidak bertindak kecuali sesuai hikmah-Nya yang sempurna. Oleh karena itu, Dia tidaklah menciptakan sesuatu main-main, dan tidaklah menetapkan syari'at yang kosong dari hikmah. Dia tidaklah memerintah kecuali jika di sana terdapat maslahat yang murni atau lebih besar maslahatnya, dan tidaklah melarang kecuali karena di dalamnya terdapat mafsadat murni atau lebih besar mafsadatnya.