الَّذِينَ يُظَاهِرُونَ مِنْكُمْ مِنْ نِسَائِهِمْ مَا هُنَّ أُمَّهَاتِهِمْ ۖ إِنْ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ إِلَّا اللَّائِي وَلَدْنَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَقُولُونَ مُنْكَرًا مِنَ الْقَوْلِ وَزُورًا ۚ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُورٌ
Those who pronounce thihar among you [to separate] from their wives - they are not [consequently] their mothers. Their mothers are none but those who gave birth to them. And indeed, they are saying an objectionable statement and a falsehood. But indeed, Allah is Pardoning and Forgiving.
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(Such of you as put away your wives (by saying they are as their mothers)…) [58:2]. Abu MansurMuhammad ibn Muhammad al-Mansuri informed us> 'Ali ibn 'Umar al-Hafiz> Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ziyadal-Naysaburi> Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath> Muhammad ibn Bakkar> Sa'id ibn Bashir that he askedQatadah about putting away one's wife declaring her to be as one's mother, and he informed him that Anasibn Malik said: “Aws ibn al-Samit put away his wife, Khuwaylah bint Tha'labah, declaring her as his motherand the latter went to complain to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. She said: 'Heput me away, declaring me to be as his mother, when I grew old and my strength failed'. And so Allah,exalted is He, revealed the verse of putting one's wife away, declaring her to be as one's mother. TheMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said to Aws: 'You have to free one slave'. He said: 'Icannot afford it!' The Prophet said: 'Then you have to fast two consecutive months'. Aws said: 'If I fail to eattwice a day, my sight suffers'. The Prophet said: 'Then you have to feed sixty needy people'. Aws said: 'Icannot do it unless you help me'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, helped himwith fifteen measures (sa') [of dates] and Allah enabled him to gather what was necessary to feed sixtyneedy people, and Allah is merciful - they were of the opinion that Aws already had with him fifteenmeasures, in order to feed sixty needy people”. 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hamid al-'Adl informed us>Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Zakariyya> Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Daghuli>Abu'l-Hasan Ahmad ibn Siyar> 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn Yahya ibn Yusuf> Abu'l-Asbagh al-Harrani> Muhammad ibnMaslamah> Muhammad ibn Ishaq> Ma'mar ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Hanzalah> Yusuf ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Salamwho said: “Khuwaylah bint Tha'labah, the wife of Aws ibn al-Samit, the brother of 'Ubadah ibn al-Samit,related to me, saying: 'He [Aws] came in one day and said something to me in an irritated tone. I answeredhim back and he got angry. He said: 'You are to me as my mother'. He then went out to the gathering placeof his people. When he came back he wanted to seduce me but I refused. He wanted to force himself on mebut I was able to push him back as can a woman usually do with a weak man. I said: 'Nay, by Him in WhoseHand is Khuwaylah's soul, you will not touch me until Allah, exalted is He, issues His ruling concerning us'. Ithen went to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, to complain about what I have been through.But he said: 'He is your husband and cousin; fear Allah and treat him well'. However, I did not leave untilthe Qur'an was revealed (Allah hath heard the saying of her that disputeth with thee (Muhammad)concerning her husband) up to His words (Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower). When he got to the expiation, hesaid: 'Tell him to free a slave'. I said: 'O Prophet of Allah, by Allah he does not have any slave to free'. Hesaid: 'Tell him to fast two consecutive months'. I said: 'O Prophet of Allah, by Allah he is an old man andunable to fast'. He said: 'Then let him feed sixty needy people'. I said: 'O Prophet of Allah, by Allah he doesnot have what to feed them with'. He said: 'In that case, we will help him with a 'Arq of dates [30 measures(Sa') of dates]'. I said: 'And I will help him with another 'Arq'. He said: 'Good of you; let him spend it incharity' ”.
الَّذِينَ يُظَـهِرُونَ مِنكُمْ مِّن نِّسَآئِهِمْ مَّا هُنَّ أُمَّهَـتِهِمْ إِنْ أُمَّهَـتُهُمْ إِلاَّ اللاَّئِى وَلَدْنَهُمْ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَقُولُونَ مُنكَراً مِّنَ الْقَوْلِ وَزُوراً وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُورٌ - وَالَّذِينَ يُظَـهِرُونَ مِن نِّسَآئِهِمْ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا قَالُواْ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَتَمَآسَّا ذَلِكُمْ تُوعَظُونَ بِهِ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ - فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَتَمَآسَّا فَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَإِطْعَامُ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِيناً ذَلِكَ لِتُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ وَلِلْكَـفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
(2. Those among you who make their wives unlawful to them by Zihar they cannot be their mothers. None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth. And verily, they utter an ill word and a lie. And verily, Allah is Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.)
(3. And those who make unlawful to them (their wives) by Zihar and wish to free themselves from what they uttered, (the penalty) in that case is the freeing of a slave before they touch each other. That is an admonition to you. And Allah is All-Aware of what you do.)
(4. And he who finds not, must fast two successive months before they both touch each other. And he who is unable to do so, should feed sixty of the poor. That is in order that you may have perfect faith in Allah and His Messenger. These are the limits set by Allah. And for disbelievers, there is a painful torment.)
Ahmad recorded that Khuwaylah bint Tha`labah said, "By Allah! Allah sent down the beginning of Surat Al-Mujadilah in connection with me and `Aws bin As-Samit. He was my husband and had grown old and difficult. One day, he came to me and I argued with him about something and he said, out of anger, `You are like my mother's back to me.' He went out and sat with some of his people. Then he came back and wanted to have sexual intercourse with me. I said, `No, by the One in Whose Hand is the soul of Khuwaylah! You will not have your way with me after you said what you said, until Allah and His Messenger issue judgement about our case.' He wanted to have his way regardless of my choice and I pushed him away from me; he was an old man.' I next went to one of my neighbors and borrowed a garment from her and went to the Messenger of Allah . I told him what happened and kept complaining to him of the ill treatment I received from `Aws. He said,
«يَاخُوَيْلَةُ، ابْنُ عَمِّكِ شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ، فَاتَّقِي اللهَ فِيه»
(O Khuwaylah! Your cousin is an old man, so have Taqwa of Allah regarding him.) By Allah! Before I departed, parts of the Qur'an were revealed about me. Allah's Messenger felt the hardship upon receiving the revelation as he usually did and then became relieved. He said to me,
«يَا خُوَيْلَةُ، قَدْ أَنْزَلَ اللهُ فِيكِ وَفِي صَاحِبِكِ قُرْآنًا»
(O Khuwaylah! Allah has revealed something about you and your spouse.) He recited to me,
قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِى تُجَادِلُكَ فِى زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِى إِلَى اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمآ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ
(Indeed Allah has heard the statement of her that disputes with you concerning her husband, and complains to Allah. And Allah hears the argument between you both. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.), until,
وَلِلكَـفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
(And for disbelievers, there is a painful torment.) He then said to me,
«مُرِيهِ فَلْيُعْتِقْ رَقَبَة»
(Command him to free a slave.) I said, `O Allah's Messenger! He does not have any to free.' He said,
«فَلْيَصُمْ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْن»
(Let him fast for two consecutive months.) I said, `By Allah! He is an old man and cannot fast.' He said,
«فَلْيُطْعِمْ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِينًا وَسْقًا مِنْ تَمْر»
(Let him feed sixty poor people a Wasq of dates.) I said, `O Allah's Messenger! By Allah, he does not have any of that.' He said,
«فَإِنَّا سَنُعِينُهُ بِعَرَقٍ مِنْ تَمْر»
(We will help him with a basket of dates.) I said, `And I, O Allah's Messenger! I will help him with another.' He said,
«قَدْ أَصَبْتِ وَأَحْسَنْتِ فَاذْهَبِي فَتَصَدَّقِي بِهِ عَنْهُ، ثُمَّ اسْتَوْصِي بِابْنِ عَمِّكِ خَيْرًا»
(You have done a righteously good thing. So go and give away the dates on his behalf and take care of your cousin.) I did that.''' Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith in the Book of Divorce in his Sunan, according to which her name is Khawlah bint Tha`labah. She is also known as Khawlah bint Malik bin Tha`labah, and Khuwaylah. All these are close to each other, and Allah knows best. This is what is correct about the reason behind revealing this Surah. Therefore, Allah's statement,
الَّذِينَ يُظَـهِرُونَ مِنكُمْ مِّن نِّسَآئِهِمْ
(Those among you who make their wives unlawful to them by Zihar) refers to Zihar, which is derived from Az-Zahr, meaning, the back. During the time of Jahiliyyah, when one wanted to declare Zihar towards his wife, he would say, "To me, you are like the back of my mother.'' That was one way they issued divorce during that time. Allah allowed this Ummah to pay expiation for this statement and did not render it as a divorce, contrary to the case during the time of Jahiliyyah. Allah said,
مَّا هُنَّ أُمَّهَـتِهِمْ إِنْ أُمَّهَـتُهُمْ إِلاَّ اللاَّئِى وَلَدْنَهُمْ
(they cannot be their mothers. None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth.) meaning, when the husband says to his wife that she is like his mother, or the back of his mother etc., she does not become his mother. Rather his mother is she who gave birth to him. This is why Allah said,
وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَقُولُونَ مُنكَراً مِّنَ الْقَوْلِ وَزُوراً
(And verily, they utter an ill word and a lie.) meaning, false and sinful speech,
وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُورٌ
(And verily, Allah is Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.) meaning, `what you used to do during the time of Jahiliyyah, and what accidentally slips out of your mouth, unintentionally.' Allah's statement,
وَالَّذِينَ يُظَـهِرُونَ مِن نِّسَآئِهِمْ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا قَالُواْ
(And those who make unlawful to them (their wives) by Zihar and wish to free themselves from what they uttered,) Ash-Shafi`i said, "It means to keep her for a while after the Zihar, without divorcing her, even though his is able to do so.'' Ahmad bin Hanbal said, "To return to having sexual relations with her or to merely intend to do so, but only after he pays the expiation mentioned in the Ayah for his statement.'' It has been quoted from Malik that it is the intention to have sexual relations or to keep her or actually having sexual intercourse. Sa`id bin Jubayr said that this Ayah,
ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا قَالُواْ
(and wish to free themselves from what they uttered,) meaning, if they want to return to having sexual intercourse which was forbidden between them. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that it is to utilize her sexual organ, and he did not see any harm in doing what is less than that before paying the expiation. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas:
مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَتَمَآسَّا
(before they touch each other.) "The `touching' refers here to sexual intercourse.'' Similar was said by `Ata', Az-Zuhri, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan. Az-Zuhri added, "He is not to kiss or touch her until he pays the expiation.'' The Sunan compilers recorded from `Ikrimah, from Ibn `Abbas that a man said, "O Allah's Messenger! I pronounced Zihar on my wife, but then had sexual intercourse with her before I paid the expiation.'' The Messenger said,
«مَا حَمَلَكَ عَلى ذَلِكَ يَرْحَمُكَ الله»
(May Allah grant you His mercy, what made you do that) He said, "I saw the adornment she was wearing shining in the moon's light.'' The Prophet said,
«فَلَا تَقْرَبْهَا حَتْى تَفْعَلَ مَا أَمَرَكَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَل»
(Then do not touch her until you do what Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has ordered you to do.) At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Gharib Sahih.'' Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i also recorded it. Allah said,
((the penalty) in that case is the freeing of a slave) indicating the necessity of freeing a slave before they touch each other. This Ayah mentions any slave, not only believing servants as in the case of the expiation for (unintentional) killing,
ذَلِكُمْ تُوعَظُونَ بِهِ
(That is an admonition to you.) meaning, a warning to threaten you in this case.
وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ
(And Allah is All-Aware of what you do.) meaning, He is All-Knower in what brings you benefit. Allah's statement,
فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَتَمَآسَّا فَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَإِطْعَامُ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِيناً
(And he who finds not must fast two successive months before they both touch each other. And he who is unable to do so, should feed sixty of the poor.) is explained by the Hadiths that prescribe these punishments in this order, just as in the Hadith collected in the Two Sahihs about the man who had sexual intercourse with his wife during the day, in Ramadan. Allah said,
ذَلِكَ لِتُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ
(That is in order that you may have perfect faith in Allah and His Messenger.) meaning, `We legislated this punishment so that you acquire this trait,'
وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ
(These are the limits set by Allah.) meaning, the things that He has forbidden, so do not transgress them,
وَلِلكَـفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
(And for disbelievers, there is a painful torment.) meaning, those who do not believe and do not abide by the rulings of Islamic legislation should never think they will be saved from the torment. Rather theirs will be a painful torment in this life and the Hereafter.
Maksudnya, bagaimana mereka mengucapkan kata-kata seperti itu yang sudah maklum tidak ada hakikatnya, mereka samakan istri dengan ibu mereka yang melahirkan mereka. Oleh karena itu, Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala memperbesar masalah itu dan menyebut buruknya dengan firman-Nya, âDan sesungguhnya mereka benar-benar telah mengucapkan suatu perkataan yang mungkar dan dusta.â
Karena zhihar itu.
Terhadap orang yang berbuat zhihar dengan membayar kaffarat atau orang yang terjatuh mengerjakan pelanggaran, kemudian ia susul dengan tobat nashuha.