فَلَمَّا رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغًا قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِنْ لَمْ يَهْدِنِي رَبِّي لَأَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّالِّينَ
And when he saw the moon rising, he said, "This is my lord." But when it set, he said, "Unless my Lord guides me, I will surely be among the people gone astray."
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(And they swear a solemn oath by Allah that if there come unto them a portent they will believe therein...)[6:109] up to (Howbeit, most of them are ignorant) [6:111]. Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Fadl informed us>Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub al-Umawi> Ahmad ‘Abd al-Jabbar> Yunus ibn Bukayr> Abu Ma‘shar> Muhammadibn Ka‘b who said: “The Quraysh spoke to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. Theysaid: ‘You inform us that Moses, peace be upon him, had a staff with which he struck a stone and twelvesprings gushed forth, and that Jesus, peace be upon him, revived the dead, and that Thamud had a camel;why do you not bring us some of those signs so that we believe in you?’ The Messenger of Allah, Allah blesshim and give him peace, asked them: ‘What sign do you want me to bring you?’ They said: ‘Turn [mount]al-Safa into gold’. He said: ‘Would you believe in me if I did as you ask?’ They said: ‘Yes, by Allah, if you do,we will all follow you’. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, stood up and begansupplicating. Then, Gabriel, peace be upon him, came to him and said: ‘If you wish, I can turn al-Safa intogold. However, never did I send a sign that people disbelieved in except that I sent chastisement after it. Ifyou wish, I will leave them until some of them decide to repent’. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless himand give him peace, said: ‘Leave them until some of them decide to repent’. And so Allah, exalted is He,revealed (And they swear a solemn oath by Allah that if there come unto them a portent they will believetherein) up to His words (… they would not believe unless Allah so willed…) [6:111]”.
وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَهِيمُ لاًّبِيهِ ءَازَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَاماً ءَالِهَةً إِنِّى أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِى ضَلَـلٍ مُّبِينٍ - وَكَذَلِكَ نُرِى إِبْرَهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُوقِنِينَ - فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ الَّيْلُ رَأَى كَوْكَباً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَ قَالَ لا أُحِبُّ الاٌّفِلِينَ - فَلَمَّآ رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغاً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِن لَّمْ يَهْدِنِى رَبِّى لاّكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّآلِّينَ - فَلَماَّ رَأَى الشَّمْسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى هَـذَآ أَكْبَرُ فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَتْ قَالَ يقَوْمِ إِنِّى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ - إِنِّى وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِىَ لِلَّذِى فَطَرَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ حَنِيفاً وَمَآ أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
(74. And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father Azar: "Do you take idols as gods Verily, I see you and your people in manifest error.'')
(75. Thus did we show Ibrahim the kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he be one of those who have faith with certainty. )
(76. When the night overcame him he saw a Kawkab. He said: "This is my lord.'' But when it Afala, he said: "I like not those that set.'')
(77. When he saw the moon rising up, he said: "This is my lord.'' But when it set, he said: "Unless my Lord guides me, I shall surely be among the misguided people.'')
(78. When he saw the sun rising up, he said: "This is my lord. This is greater.'' But when it Afalat, he said: "O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners in worship with Allah.)
(79. Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth, Hanifan, and I am not of the idolators.'')
Ibrahim advised, discouraged and forbade his father from worshipping idols, just as Allah stated,
وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَهِيمُ لاًّبِيهِ ءَازَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَاماً ءَالِهَةً
(And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father Azar: "Do you take idols as gods'') meaning, do you worship an idol instead of Allah
إِنِّى أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ
(Verily, I see you and your people...) who follow your path,
فِى ضَلَـلٍ مُّبِينٍ
(in manifest error) wandering in confusion unaware of where to go. Therefore, you are in disarray and ignorance, and this fact is clear to all those who have sound reason. Allah also said,
وَاذْكُرْ فِى الْكِتَـبِ إِبْرَهِيمَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقاً نَّبِيّاً - إِذْ قَالَ لاًّبِيهِ يأَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لاَ يَسْمَعُ وَلاَ يَبْصِرُ وَلاَ يُغْنِى عَنكَ شَيْئاً - يأَبَتِ إِنِّى قَدْ جَآءَنِى مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِكَ فَاتَّبِعْنِى أَهْدِكَ صِرَاطاً سَوِيّاً - يأَبَتِ لاَ تَعْبُدِ الشَّيْطَـنَ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَـنَ كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ عَصِيّاً - يأَبَتِ إِنِّى أَخَافُ أَن يَمَسَّكَ عَذَابٌ مِّنَ الرَّحْمَـنِ فَتَكُونَ لِلشَّيْطَـنِ وَلِيّاً - قَالَ أَرَاغِبٌ أَنتَ عَنْ آلِهَتِى يإِبْرَهِيمُ لَئِن لَّمْ تَنتَهِ لأَرْجُمَنَّكَ وَاهْجُرْنِى مَلِيّاً - قَالَ سَلَـمٌ عَلَيْكَ سَأَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّي إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِى حَفِيّاً - وَأَعْتَزِلُكُمْ وَمَا تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَأَدْعُو رَبِّى عَسَى أَلاَّ أَكُونَ بِدُعَآءِ رَبِّى شَقِيًّا
(And mention in the Book (the Qur'an, the story of) Ibrahim. Verily! He was a man of truth, a Prophet. When he said to his father: "O my father! Why do you worship that which hears not, sees not and cannot avail you in anything O my father! Verily! There has come to me of knowledge that which came not unto you. So follow me. I will guide you to a straight path. O my father! Worship not Shaytan. Verily! Shaytan has been a rebel against the Most Beneficent (Allah). O my father! Verily! I fear lest a torment from the Most Beneficent (Allah) overtakes you, so that you become a companion of Shaytan (in the Hell-fire).'' He (the father) said: "Do you reject my gods, O Ibrahim If you stop not (this), I will indeed stone you. So get away from me safely before I punish you.'' Ibrahim said: "Peace be on you! I will ask forgiveness of my Lord for you. Verily! He is unto me, Ever Most Gracious. And I shall turn away from you and from those whom you invoke besides Allah. And I shall call on my Lord; and I hope that I shall not be unanswered in my invocation to my Lord.'') 19:41-48 Ibrahim continued asking for forgiveness for his father for the rest of his father's life. When his father died an idolator and Ibrahim realized this fact, he stopped asking Allah for forgiveness for him and disassociated himself from him. Allah said,
وَمَا كَانَ اسْتِغْفَارُ إِبْرَهِيمَ لاًّبِيهِ إِلاَّ عَن مَّوْعِدَةٍ وَعَدَهَآ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ أَنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ لِلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُ إِنَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ لأَوَّاهٌ حَلِيمٌ
(And invoking for his father's forgiveness was only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became clear to him that he was an enemy to Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily Ibrahim was patient in supplication and forbearing.) 9:114. It was recorded in the Sahih that Ibrahim will meet his father Azar on the Day of Resurrection and Azar will say to him, "My son! This Day, I will not disobey you.'' Ibrahim will say, "O Lord! You promised me not to disgrace me on the Day they are resurrected; and what will be more disgraceful to me than cursing and dishonoring my father'' Then Allah will say, "O Ibrahim! Look behind you!'' He will look and there he will see (that his father was changed into) a male hyena covered in dung, which will be caught by the legs and thrown in the (Hell) Fire.''
وَكَذَلِكَ نُرِى إِبْرَهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ
(Thus did We show Ibrahim the kingdom of the heavens and the earth...) 6:75, means, when he contemplated about the creation of the heaven and earth, We showed Ibrahim the proofs of Allah's Oneness over His dominion and His creation, which indicate that there is no god or Lord except Allah. Allah said in other Ayat;
قُلِ انظُرُواْ مَاذَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ
(Say: "Behold all that is in the heavens and the earth.'') 10:101, and,
أَفَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ إِلَى مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ وَالاٌّرْضِ إِن نَّشَأْ نَخْسِفْ بِهِمُ الاٌّرْضَ أَوْ نُسْقِطْ عَلَيْهِمْ كِسَفاً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَةً لِّكُلِّ عَبْدٍ مُّنِيبٍ
(See they not what is before them and what is behind them, of the heaven and the earth If We will, We sink the earth with them, or cause a piece of the sky to fall upon them. Verily, in this is a sign for every servant who turns to Allah.) 34:9 Allah said next,
فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ الَّيْلُ
(When the night overcame him) covered him with darkness,
(He saw a Kawkab) a star.
قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَ
(He said: "This is my lord.'' But when it Afala,) meaning, set, he said,
لا أُحِبُّ الاٌّفِلِينَ
(I like not those that set.) Qatadah commented, "Ibrahim knew that his Lord is Eternal and never ceases.''
فَلَمَّآ رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغاً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى فَلَمَّآ أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِن لَّمْ يَهْدِنِى رَبِّى لاّكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّآلِّينَ
(When he saw the moon rising up, he said: "This is my lord.'' But when it set, he said: "Unless my Lord guides me, I shall surely be among the misguided people.'' When he saw the sun rising up, he said: "This is my lord.'') this radiating, rising star is my lord,
(This is greater) bigger than the star and the moon, and more radiant.
(But when it Afalat) set,
قَالَ يقَوْمِ إِنِّى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَإِنِّى وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِىَ
(he said: "O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners in worship with Allah. Verily, I have turned my face...''), meaning, I have purified my religion and made my worship sincere,
لِلَّذِى فَطَرَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ
("towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth,'') Who originated them and shaped them without precedence,
(Hanifan) avoiding Shirk and embracing Tawhid. This is why he said next,
وَمَآ أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
("and I am not of the idolators.'')
We should note here that, in these Ayat, Ibrahim, peace be upon him, was debating with his people, explaining to them the error of their way in worshipping idols and images. In the first case with his father, Ibrahim explained to his people their error in worshipping the idols of earth, which they made in the shape of heavenly angels, so that they intercede on their behalf with the Glorious Creator. His people thought that they are too insignificant to worship Allah directly, and this is why they turned to the worship of angels as intercessors with Allah for their provisions, gaining victory and attaining their various needs. He then explained to them the error and deviation of worshipping the seven planets, which they said were the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The brightest of these objects and the most honored to them was the Sun, the Moon then Venus. Ibrahim, may Allah's peace and blessings be on him, first proved that Venus is not worthy of being worshipped, for it is subservient to a term and course appointed that it does not defy, nor swerving right or left. Venus does not have any say in its affairs, for it is only a heavenly object that Allah created and made bright out of His wisdom. Venus rises from the east and sets in the west where it disappears from sight. This rotation is repeated the next night, and so forth. Such an object is not worthy of being a god. Ibrahim then went on to mention the Moon in the same manner in which he mentioned Venus, and then the Sun. When he proved that these three objects were not gods, although they are the brightest objects the eyes can see,
قَالَ يقَوْمِ إِنِّى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ
(he said: "O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners in worship with Allah.'') meaning, I am free from worshipping these objects and from taking them as protectors. Therefore, if they are indeed gods as you claim, then all of you bring your plot against me and do not give me respite.
إِنِّى وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِىَ لِلَّذِى فَطَرَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ حَنِيفاً وَمَآ أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
(Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth, Hanifan, and I am not one of the idolators.) meaning, I worship the Creator of these things, Who originated and decreed them, and Who governs their affairs and made them subservient. It is He in Whose Hand is the dominion of all things, and He is the Creator, Lord, King and God of all things in existence. In another Ayah, Allah said؛
إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِى الَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ أَلاَ لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالاٌّمْرُ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَـلَمِينَ
(Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne. He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars, subjecting them to His command. Surely, His is the creation and commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of all that exists!) 7:54. Allah described Prophet Ibrahim,
وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَآ إِبْرَهِيمَ رُشْدَهُ مِن قَبْلُ وَكُنَّا بِهِ عَـلِمِينَ - إِذْ قَالَ لاًّبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَـذِهِ التَّمَـثِيلُ الَّتِى أَنتُمْ لَهَا عَـكِفُونَ
(And indeed We bestowed aforetime on Ibrahim his (portion of) guidance, and We were well-acquainted with him. When he said to his father and his people: "What are these images, to which you are devoted'') 21:51-52. These Ayat indicate that Ibrahim was debating with his people about the Shirk they practiced.
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