وَلَا تَنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنَّ ۚ وَلَأَمَةٌ مُؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ مُشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ ۗ وَلَا تُنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنُوا ۚ وَلَعَبْدٌ مُؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ مُشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ ۖ وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
And do not marry polytheistic women until they believe. And a believing slave woman is better than a polytheist, even though she might please you. And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you. Those invite [you] to the Fire, but Allah invites to Paradise and to forgiveness, by His permission. And He makes clear His verses to the people that perhaps they may remember.
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(Wed not idolatresses till they believe…) [2:221]. Abu 'Uthman ibn 'Amr al-Hafiz informed us> hisgrandfather> Abu 'Amr Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Jurashi> Isma'il ibn Qutaybah> Abu Khalid> Bukayr ibnMa'ruf> Muqatil ibn Hayyan who said: “This verse was revealed about Abu Marthad al-Ghanawi who soughtthe permission of the Prophet, Allah, bless him and give him peace, to marry 'Anaq, who was a poor, fairlybeautiful woman from Quraysh. But this woman was an idolatress whereas Marthad was Muslim. Marthadsaid to the prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace: 'O prophet of Allah! I like her!' Allah then revealedthis verse (Wed not idolatresses till they believe…)”. Abu 'Uthman informed us> his grandfather> Abu 'Amr>Muhammad ibn Yahya> 'Amr ibn Hammad> Asbat> al-Suddi> Abu Malik> ibn 'Abbas who said regardingthis verse: “This verse was revealed about 'Abd Allah ibn Rawahah who owned a black slave. It happenedthat 'Abd Allah punched this slave because he got angry with her. But then he became worried as a result ofwhat he had done which made him rush to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, toinform him of what had happened. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, asked him:'And what is it that is really making you worried?' 'Abd Allah said: 'O Messenger of Allah! She fast and praysand performs the ritual ablution in the proper way and she bears witness that there is no god but Allah andthat you are His Messenger'. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'O 'Abd Allah! She is abeliever!' 'Abd Allah said: 'By Him who has sent you with the truth, I will set her free and marry her'. And hedid. A group of Muslims reproached him for doing so, saying: 'He married a slave!' This is because Muslimswere still looking forward to marry idolatresses and marry their own daughters to idolaters, out of desire fortheir noble lineages. Allah, exalted is He, therefore revealed about them (for lo! a believing bondwoman isbetter than an idolatress though she please you…)”. Ibn 'Abbas is reported to have said according to thenarration of al-Kalbi from Abu Salih: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent aman from Ghaniyy called Marthad ibn Abi Marthad, an ally of Banu Hashim, to Mecca to try to free someMuslims who were held prisoners there. When Marthad reached Mecca, a woman called 'Anaq heard of hisarrival and went to see him. This woman used to be his mistress in the pre-Islamic period but when heembraced Islam, he abandoned her. She said to him: 'Woe unto you, O Marthad! Should we not gosomewhere secluded?' He said: 'Islam has placed a barrier between you and I and seclusion with you isforbidden for me. However, if you wish, I will marry you. When I return back to the Messenger of Allah,Allah bless him and give him peace, I will seek his permission and marry you'. She said to him: 'Do yourefuse the like of me?' She then cried for help, and Marthad was beaten up very badly before they let himgo. When he finished his business in Mecca, he went back to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him andgive him peace, and informed him about 'Anaq and what he went through because of her. He then asked: 'OMessenger of Allah! Is it lawful for me to marry her?' Allah revealed this verse forbidding him from marryingher (Wed not idolatresses till they believe…)”.
وَلاَ تَنْكِحُواْ الْمُشْرِكَـتِ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ وَلأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ وَلاَ تُنكِحُواْ الْمُشِرِكِينَ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنُواْ وَلَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ أُوْلَـئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُواْ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَـتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
(221. And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (idolatresses) till they believe (worship Allah Alone). And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (idolatress), even though she pleases you. And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al-Mushrikin till they believe (in Allah Alone) and verily, a believing servant is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolator), even though he pleases you. Those (Mushrikin) invite you to the Fire, but Allah invites (you) to Paradise and forgiveness by His leave, and makes His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to mankind that they may remember.)
Allah prohibited the believers from marrying Mushrik women who worship idols. Although the meaning is general and includes every Mushrik woman from among the idol worshippers and the People of the Scripture, Allah excluded the People of the Scripture from this ruling. Allah stated:
مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَآ ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ
((Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before your time when you have given their due dowry, desiring chastity (i.e., taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse.) (5:5) `Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said about what Allah said:
وَلاَ تَنْكِحُواْ الْمُشْرِكَـتِ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ
(And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (female idolators) till they believe (worship Allah Alone).) "Allah has excluded the women of the People of the Scripture.'' This is also the explanation of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Makhul, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and others. Some scholars said that the Ayah is exclusively talking about idol worshippers and not the People of the Scripture, and this meaning is similar to the first meaning we mentioned. Allah knows best. Abu Ja`far bin Jarir (At-Tabari) said, after mentioning that there is Ijma` that marrying women from the People of the Scripture is allowed, "`Umar disliked this practice so that the Muslims do not refrain from marrying Muslim women, or for similar reasons.'' An authentic chain of narrators stated that Shaqiq said: Once Hudhayfah married a Jewish woman and `Umar wrote to him, "Divorce her.'' He wrote back, "Do you claim that she is not allowed for me so that I divorce her'' He said, "No. But, I fear that you might marry the whores from among them.'' Ibn Jarir related that Zayd bin Wahb said that `Umar bin Khattab said, "The Muslim man marries the Christian woman, but the Christian man does not marry the Muslim woman.'' This Hadith has a stronger, authentic chain of narrators than the previous Hadith. Ibn Abu Hatim said that Ibn `Umar disliked marrying the women from the People of the Scripture. He relied on his own explanation for the Ayah:
وَلاَ تَنْكِحُواْ الْمُشْرِكَـتِ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ
(And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (female idolators) till they believe (worship Allah Alone).) Al-Bukhari also reported that Ibn `Umar said, "I do not know of a bigger Shirk than her saying that Jesus is her Lord!'' Allah said:
وَلأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ
(And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (female idolators), even though she pleases you.) It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said:
«تُنْـكَحُ الْمَرْأَةُ لِأَرْبَعٍ: لِمَالِهَا وَلِحَسَبِهَا وَلِجَمَالِهَا وَلِدِينِهَا، فَاظْفَرْ بِذَاتِ الدِّينِ، تَرِبَتْ يَدَاك»
(A woman is chosen for marriage for four reasons: her wealth, social status, beauty, and religion. So, marry the religious woman, may your hands be filled with sand (a statement of encouragement).) Muslim reported this Hadith from Jabir. Muslim also reported that Ibn `Amr said that Allah's Messenger said:
«الدُّنْيَا مَتَاعٌ، وَخَيْرُ مَتَاعِ الدُّنْيَا الْمَرْأَةُ الصَّالِحَة»
(The life of this world is but a delight, and the best of the delights of this earthly life is the righteous wife.) Allah then said:
وَلاَ تُنكِحُواْ الْمُشِرِكِينَ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنُواْ
(And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al-Mushrikin till they believe (in Allah Alone).) meaning, do not marry Mushrik men to believing women. This statement is similar to Allah's statement:
لاَ هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ
(They are not lawful (wives) for them, nor are they lawful (husbands) for them.) (60:10) Next, Allah said:
وَلَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ
(. ..and verily, a believing servant is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolator), even though he pleases you.) This Ayah indicates that a believing man, even an Abyssinian servant, is better than a Mushrik man, even if he was a rich master.
أُوْلَـئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ
(Those (Al-Mushrikun) invite you to the Fire) meaning, associating and mingling with the disbelievers makes one love this life and prefer it over the Hereafter, leading to the severest repercussions. Allah said:
وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُواْ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ
(...but Allah invites (you) to Paradise and forgiveness by His leave) meaning, by His Law, commandments and prohibitions. Allah said:
وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَـتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
(...and makes His Ayat clear to mankind that they may remember.)
Yakni sampai mereka masuk Islam, ayat ini ditakhshis dengan ayat yang membolehkan menikahi wanita ahlul kitab.
Ayat ini adalah umum tidak ada pentakhshisnya.
Yakni orang-orang musyrik mengajak ke neraka. Inilah hikmah haramnya seorang muslim atau muslimah menikahi orang-orang musyrik.
Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala menerangkan hukum-hukum-Nya kepada manusia agar mereka dapat mengingat apa yang sebelumnya mereka lupakan, mengetahui apa yang ssebelumnya mereka tidak ketahui dan agar mengerjakan apa yang sebelumnya mereka sia-siakan.