وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ أَنْ يَنْكِحْنَ أَزْوَاجَهُنَّ إِذَا تَرَاضَوْا بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۗ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَزْكَىٰ لَكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
And when you divorce women and they have fulfilled their term, do not prevent them from remarrying their [former] husbands if they agree among themselves on an acceptable basis. That is instructed to whoever of you believes in Allah and the Last Day. That is better for you and purer, and Allah knows and you know not.
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(And when ye have divorced women and they reach their term, place not difficulties in the way…) [2:232].Abu Sa‘id ibn Abi Bakr ibn al-Ghazi informed us> Abu Ahmad Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Hafiz> Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn> Ahmad ibn Hafs ibn ‘Abd Allah> his father> Ibrahim ibnTahman> Yunus ibn ‘Ubayd> al-Hasan that he said regarding the saying of Allah, Glorious and Majestic isHe (And when ye have divorced women and they reach their term, place not difficulties in the way of theirmarrying their husbands if it is agreed between them in kindness…): “Ma‘qil ibn Yasar informed me that thisverse was revealed about him. He said: ‘I had given one of my sisters to a certain man who went on todivorce her. When my sister’s waiting period was over, the same man came back asking for my sister’shand. I said to him: ‘I had given my sister to you as a bride; I married her to you and honoured you, butyou went on to divorce her. No, by Allah, you will never go back to her!’ He said: ‘the man was not bad, andthe woman wanted to go back to him. Then Allah, glorious and majestic is He, revealed this verse. I said: Iwill do it now, O Messenger of Allah’. And he gave his sister in marriage to this man’ ”. This was narrated byBukhari from Ahmad ibn Hafs. Al-Hakim Abu Mansur Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Mansuri informed us>‘Ali ibn ‘Umar ibn Mahdi> Muhammad ibn ‘Amr ibn al-Bukhturi> Yahya ibn Ja‘far> Abu ‘Amir al-‘Uqadi>‘Abbad ibn Rashid> al-Hasan> Ma‘qil ibn Yasar who said: “I had a sister whose hand I always decline to giveuntil a cousin of mine proposed to her. I gave her to him in marriage and they remained married as long asAllah willed. He then divorced her a revocable divorce, waited until her waiting period elapsed and cameforward, along with other suitors, to ask for her hand. I said to him: ‘I had refused to marry her off to otherpeople and, instead, gave her to you in marriage. You chose to divorce her a revocable divorce and waiteduntil the waiting period elapsed. Now that her hand is asked for, you come to me asking to marry her. I willnever marry her to you’. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (And when ye have divorced women and theyreach their term, place not difficulties in the way of their marrying their husbands…). I therefore did amendfor my oath and gave her to him in marriage”. Isma‘il ibn Abi al-Qasim al-Nasrabadhi informed us> AbuMuhammad ‘Abd Allah ibn Ibrahim ibn Masi al-Bazzaz>Abu Muslim Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Basri> Hajjajibn Minhal> Mubarak ibn Fudalah> al-Hasan who reported that Ma‘qil ibn Yasar married his sister to aMuslim man. He remained married to her for a certain period and then divorced her one single divorce. Heleft her until the waiting period elapsed, and she became free to marry whoever she choose to, and camealong with other suitors asking for her hand. She agreed to go back to him. He therefore went to Ma‘qil ibnYasar asking for her hand. Ma‘qil was angry. He told him: “I honoured you by giving her to you in marriagebut you divorced her. By Allah, she will never go back to you!” Al-Hasan said: “Allah knew the man's needfor his wife and the wife's need for her husband, and He revealed regarding this in the Qur’an (And when yehave divorced women and they reach their term, place not difficulties in the way of their marrying theirhusbands if it is agreed between them in kindness…). When Ma‘qil ibn Yasar heard this, he said: ‘I hear myLord and obey!’ He then called the man and said: ‘I will give you my sister for marriage and honour you’,and he did”. Sa‘id ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Shahid informed us> his grandfather> Abu ‘Amr al-Hiri>Muhammad ibn Yahya> ‘Amr ibn Hammad> Asbat> al-Suddi who said, reporting from his sources ofnarration: “This verse was revealed about Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Ansari. He had a cousin whose husbanddivorced her one single divorce. When her waiting period elapsed, he came back, wanting to take her back.But Jabir refused, saying: ‘You have divorced our cousin and now you want to marry her a second time [thiswill not happen]’. The woman however wanted to go back to her husband because she accepted him, andso this verse was revealed about them”.
وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَآءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلاَ تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ أَن يَنكِحْنَ أَزْوَجَهُنَّ إِذَا تَرَضَوْاْ بَيْنَهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ذلِكَ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَن كَانَ مِنكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ ذلِكُمْ أَزْكَى لَكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ
(232. And when you have divorced women and they have fulfilled the term of their prescribed period, do not prevent them from marrying their (former) husbands, if they mutually agree on reasonable basis. This (instruction) is an admonition for him among you who believes in Allah and the Last Day. That is more virtuous and purer for you. Allah knows and you know not.)
`Ali bin Abu Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This Ayah was revealed about the man who divorces his wife once or twice and her `Iddah finishes. He later thinks about taking her back in marriage and the woman also wishes that, yet, her family prevents her from remarrying him. Hence, Allah prohibited her family from preventing her.'' Masruq, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Az-Zuhri and Ad-Dahhak stated that this is the reason behind revealing the Ayah (2:232). These statements clearly conform to the apparent meaning of the Ayah.
The Ayah (2:232) also indicates that the woman is not permitted to give herself in marriage. Rather, she requires a Wali (guardian such as her father, brother, adult son, and so forth) to give her away in marriage, as Ibn Jarir and At-Tirmidhi have stated when they mentioned this Ayah. Also, a Hadith states that:
«لَا تُزَوِّجُ الْمَرْأةُ الْمَرْأَةَ، ولَا تُزَوِّج الْمَرأةُ نَفْسَهَا، فَإِنَّ الزَّانِيَةَ هِيَ الَّتِي تُزَوِّجُ نَفْسَهَا»
(The woman does not give another woman away for marriage and the woman does not give herself away in marriage, for only the adulteress gives herself away for marriage.) Another Hadith states:
«لَا نِكَاحَ إلَّا بِوَلِيَ مُرْشِدٍ وَشَاهِدَيْ عَدْل»
(No marriage is valid except with the participation of a mature Wali and two trustworthy witnesses.)
It was reported that this Ayah was revealed about Ma`qil bin Yasar Al-Muzani and his sister. Al-Bukhari reported in his Sahih, when he mentioned the Tafsir of this Ayah (2:232), that the husband of the sister of Ma`qil bin Yasar divorced her. He waited until her `Iddah finished and then asked to remarry her, but Ma`qil refused. Then, this Ayah was sent down:
فَلاَ تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ أَن يَنكِحْنَ أَزْوَجَهُنَّ
(...do not prevent them from marrying their (former) husbands.) Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Abu Hatim, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Marduwyah and Al-Bayhaqi reported this Hadith from Al-Hasan from Ma`qil bin Yasar. At-Tirmidhi rendered this Hadith authentic and in his narration, Ma`qil bin Yasar gave his sister in marriage for a Muslim man during the time of Allah's Messenger . She remained with him for a while and he divorced her once and did not take her back until her `Iddah finished. They then wanted to get back with each other and he came to ask her for marriage. Ma`qil said to him, "O ungrateful one! I honored you and married her to you but you divorced her. By Allah! She will never be returned to you.'' But Allah knew his need for his wife and her need for her husband and He revealed:
وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَآءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ
(And when you have divorced women and they have fulfilled the term of their prescribed period, ) until He said:
وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ
(...and you know not.) When Ma`qil heard the Ayah, he said, "I hear and obey my Lord.'' He then summoned the man and said, "I will honor you and let you remarry (my sister).'' Ibn Marduwyah added (that Ma`qil said), "And will pay (the expiation) for breaking my vow.'' Allah said:
ذلِكَ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَن كَانَ مِنكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ
(This (instruction) is an admonition for him among you who believes in Allah and the Last Day.) meaning, prohibiting you from preventing the women from marrying their ex-husbands, if they both agree to it,
مَن كَانَ مِنكُمْ
(among you) O people,
يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ
(who believes in Allah and the Last Day.) meaning, believes in Allah's commandments and fears His warnings and the torment in the Hereafter. Allah said:
ذلِكُمْ أَزْكَى لَكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ
(That is more virtuous and purer for you.) meaning, obeying Allah's Law by returning the women to their ex-husbands, and abandoning your displeasure, is purer and cleaner for your hearts,
(Allah knows) the benefits you gain from what He commands and what He forbids.
وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ
(and you know not) the benefits in what you do or what you refrain from doing.