وَشَجَرَةً تَخْرُجُ مِنْ طُورِ سَيْنَاءَ تَنْبُتُ بِالدُّهْنِ وَصِبْغٍ لِلْآكِلِينَ
And [We brought forth] a tree issuing from Mount Sinai which produces oil and food for those who eat.
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فَأَنشَأْنَا لَكُمْ بِهِ جَنَّـتٍ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَـبٍ لَّكُمْ فِيهَا فَوَكِهُ كَثِيرَةٌ وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ - وَشَجَرَةً تَخْرُجُ مِن طُورِ سَيْنَآءَ تَنبُتُ بِالدُّهْنِ وَصِبْغٍ لِّلأَكِلِيِنَ - وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ فِى الاٌّنْعَـمِ لَعِبْرَةً نُّسْقِيكُمْ مِّمَّا فِى بُطُونِهَا وَلَكُمْ فيِهَا مَنَـفِعُ كَثِيرَةٌ وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ - وَعَلَيْهَا وَعَلَى الْفُلْكِ تُحْمَلُونَ
(18. And We sent down from the sky water in measure, and We gave it lodging in the earth, and verily, We are able to take it away.)
(19. Then We brought forth for you therewith gardens of date palms and grapes, wherein is much fruit for you, and whereof you eat.)
(20. And a tree that springs forth from Tur Sinai, that grows oil, and relish for the eaters.)
(21. And verily, in the cattle there is indeed a lesson for you. We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies. And there are, in them, numerous benefits for you, and of them you eat.)
(22. And on them, and on ships you are carried.)
Allah mentions His innumerable blessings to His servants, whereby He sends down rain in due measure, meaning, according to what is needed, not so much that it damages the lands and buildings, and not so little to be insufficient for crops and fruits, but whatever is needed for irrigation, drinking and other benefits. If there is a land that needs a lot of water for its irrigation but its fertile soil would be carried away if rain fell on it, then Allah sends water to it from another land, as in the case of Egypt, which is said to be a barren land. Allah sends the water of the Nile to it, which brings red soil from Ethiopia when it rains there. The water brings the red soil which is used to irrigate the land of Egypt, and whatever of it is deposited is used for agriculture, because the land of Egypt is infertile, and most of it is sand. Glory be to the Subtle One, the All-Knowing, the Most Merciful, the Forgiving.
فَأَسْكَنَّاهُ فِى الاٌّرْضِ
(and We gave it lodging in the earth,) means, `when the water comes down from the clouds, We cause it to settle in the earth, and We cause the earth to absorb it and the seeds etc. in the earth to be nourished by it.'
وَإِنَّا عَلَى ذَهَابٍ بِهِ لَقَـدِرُونَ
(and verily, We are able to take it away.) means, `if We wanted to cause it not to rain, We could do so; if We wanted to divert it towards the wilderness and wastelands, We could do so; if We wanted to make it salty so that you could not benefit from it for drinking or irrigation, We could do so; if We wanted to cause it not to be absorbed by the earth, but to remain on the surface, We could do so; if We wanted to make it go deep underground where you would not be able to reach it and you could not benefit from it, We could do so.' But by His grace and mercy, He causes sweet, fresh water to fall on you from the clouds, then it settles in the earth and forms springs and rivers, and you use it to irrigate your crops and fruits, and you drink it and give it to your livestock and cattle, and you bathe and purify yourselves with it. To Him is due the praise and thanks.
فَأَنشَأْنَا لَكُمْ بِهِ جَنَّـتٍ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَـبٍ
(Then We brought forth for you therewith gardens of date palms and grapes,) means, `from that which We send down from the sky, We bring forth for you gardens and orchards which look beautiful.'
مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَابٍ
(of date palms and grapes,) These were the kinds of gardens that were known to the people of the Hijaz, but there is no difference between a thing and its counterpart. The people of each region have fruits which are the blessing of Allah given to them, and for which they cannot properly thank Allah enough.
لَّكُمْ فِيهَا فَوَكِهُ كَثِيرَةٌ
(wherein is much fruit for you,) means, of all fruits. As Allah says elsewhere:
يُنبِتُ لَكُمْ بِهِ الزَّرْعَ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالنَّخِيلَ وَالأَعْنَـبَ وَمِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَتِ
(With it the rain He causes to grow for you the crops, the olives, the date palms, the grapes, and every kind of fruit) 16:11.
(and whereof you eat.) This implies that you look at its beauty, wait for it to ripen, then eat from it.
وَشَجَرَةً تَخْرُجُ مِن طُورِ سَيْنَآءَ
(And a tree that springs forth from Tur Sinai,) means the olive tree. Tur means a mountain. Some of the scholars said, "It is called Tur if there are trees on it, and if it is bare it is called Jabal, not Tur. And Allah knows best. Mount Sinai is the same as Tur Sinin, and it is the mountain on which Allah spoke to Musa bin `Imran, peace be upon him, and in the surrounding mountains there are olive trees.
(that grows oil,) Some scholars think it linguistically means that it brings forth oil. Others say it linguistically means "comes forth with oil.'' Allah said,
(and relish) meaning a condiment. according to Qatadah.
(for the eaters. ) means, it contains a beneficial oil and condiment. `Abd bin Humayd recorded in his Musnad and Tafsir from `Umar that the Messenger of Allah said:
«ائْتَدِمُوا بِالزَّيْتِ وَادَّهِنُوا بِهِ فَإِنَّهُ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ شَجَرَةٍ مُبَارَكَة»
(Eat (olive) oil as a condiment and apply it as oil, for it comes from a blessed tree.) It was recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah. Allah's saying;
وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ فِى الاٌّنْعَـمِ لَعِبْرَةً نُّسْقِيكُمْ مِّمَّا فِى بُطُونِهَا وَلَكُمْ فيِهَا مَنَـفِعُ كَثِيرَةٌ وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ - وَعَلَيْهَا وَعَلَى الْفُلْكِ تُحْمَلُونَ
(And verily, in the cattle there is indeed a lesson for you. We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies. And there are, in them, numerous benefits for you, and of them you eat. And on them and on ships you are carried), Here Allah mentions the benefits He has given to His servants in cattle, for they drink their milk which comes out from between dung and blood, they eat their meat and clothe themselves with their wool and hair, they ride on their backs and carry heavy burdens on them to far away lands, as Allah says:
وَتَحْمِلُ أَثْقَالَكُمْ إِلَى بَلَدٍ لَّمْ تَكُونُواْ بَـلِغِيهِ إِلاَّ بِشِقِّ الأَنفُسِ إِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ لَرَؤُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ
(And they carry your loads to a land that you could not reach except with great trouble to yourselves. Truly, your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful.) 16:7
أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا خَلَقْنَا لَهُم مِمَّا عَمِلَتْ أَيْدِينَآ أَنْعـماً فَهُمْ لَهَا مَـلِكُونَ - وَذَلَّلْنَـهَا لَهُمْ فَمِنْهَا رَكُوبُهُمْ وَمِنْهَا يَأْكُلُونَ - وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا مَنَـفِعُ وَمَشَـرِبُ أَفَلاَ يَشْكُرُونَ
(Do they not see that We have created for them of what Our Hands have created, the cattle, so that they are their owners. And We have subdued them unto them so that some of them they have for riding and some they eat. And in them there are benefits for them, and drink. Will they not then be grateful) 36:71-73