اصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا دَاوُودَ ذَا الْأَيْدِ ۖ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ
Be patient over what they say and remember Our servant, David, the possessor of strength; indeed, he was one who repeatedly turned back [to Allah].
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كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ وَعَادٌ وفِرْعَوْنُ ذُو الاٌّوْتَادِ - وَثَمُودُ وَقَوْمُ لُوطٍ وَأَصْحَـبُ لـَيْكَةِ أُوْلَـئِكَ الاٌّحْزَابُ - إِن كُلٌّ إِلاَّ كَذَّبَ الرٌّسُلَ فَحَقَّ عِقَابِ - وَمَا يَنظُرُ هَـؤُلآءِ إِلاَّ صَيْحَةً وحِدَةً مَّا لَهَا مِن فَوَاقٍ - وَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَا عَجِّل لَّنَا قِطَّنَا قَبْلَ يَوْمِ الْحِسَابِ اصْبِر عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ
(12. Before them denied -- the people of Nuh; and
Ad; and Fir
awn the man of stakes,)
(13. And Thamud, and the people of Lut, and the Dwellers of Al-Aykah; such were the Confederates.)
(14. Not one of them but denied the Messengers; therefore My torment was justified.)
(15. And these only wait for a single Sayhah there will be no pause or ending thereto. )
(16. They say: "Our Lord! Hasten to us Qittana before the Day of Reckoning!'')
(17. Be patient of what they say...)
Allah tells us about those past nations and the punishment and vengeance that struck them for their going against the Messengers and disbelieving in the Prophets, peace be upon them. We have already seen their stories in detail in numerous places (in the Qur'an). Allah says:
(such were the Confederates.) meaning, `they were greater and stronger than you, they had more wealth and children, but that did not protect them from the punishment of Allah at all when the command of your Lord came to pass.' Allah says:
إِن كُلٌّ إِلاَّ كَذَّبَ الرٌّسُلَ فَحَقَّ عِقَابِ
(Not one of them but denied the Messengers; therefore My torment was justified.) `The reason for their destruction was their disbelief in the Messengers, so let those who are addressed here beware and be afraid.'
وَمَا يَنظُرُ هَـؤُلآءِ إِلاَّ صَيْحَةً وحِدَةً مَّا لَهَا مِن فَوَاقٍ
(And these only wait for a single Sayhah there will be no pause or ending thereto.) Malik narrated from Zayd bin Aslam; "There will none who can avert it,'' i.e., they will only wait for the Hour that it shall come upon them suddenly while they perceive not. But some of its portents have already come, i.e., it has drawn nigh. This Sayhah is the blast on the Trumpet when Allah will command Israfil to sound a long note, and there will be no one in the heaven or on earth but will be terrified, except those whom Allah spares.
وَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَا عَجِّل لَّنَا قِطَّنَا قَبْلَ يَوْمِ الْحِسَابِ
(They say: "Our Lord! Hasten to us Qittana before the Day of Reckoning!'') Here Allah denounces the idolators for calling for the punishment to be hastened upon themselves. Qitt refers to a book or record, or it was said that it means one's allotted share or fortune. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan and others said, "They asked for the punishment to be hastened.'' Qatadah added, this is like when they said: e
اللَّهُمَّ إِن كَانَ هَـذَا هُوَ الْحَقَّ مِنْ عِندِكَ فَأَمْطِرْ عَلَيْنَا حِجَارَةً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ أَوِ ائْتِنَا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
("O Allah! If this (the Qur'an) is indeed the truth from You, then rain down stones on us from the sky or bring on us a painful torment.'') (8:32). It was also said that they asked for their share of Paradise to be hastened, if it really existed, so that they might have their share in this world; they said this because they thought it unlikely to exist and they disbelieved in it. Ibn Jarir said, "They asked for whatever they deserved, good or bad, to be hastened for them in this world.'' What he said is good, and A-Dahhak and Isma`il bin Abi Khalid based their views on it. And Allah knows best. They said this by way of mockery and disbelief, so Allah commanded His Messenger to be patient in the face of their insults, and He gave him the glad tidings that his patience would be rewarded with victory and success.
اصْبِر عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا دَاوُودَ ذَا الاٌّيْدِ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ - إِنَّا سَخَّرْنَا الجِبَالَ مَعَهُ يُسَبِّحْنَ بِالْعَشِىِّ وَالإِشْرَاقِ - وَالطَّيْرَ مَحْشُورَةً كُلٌّ لَّهُ أَوَّابٌ - وَشَدَدْنَا مُلْكَهُ وَءَاتَيْنَـهُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَفَصْلَ الْخِطَابِ
(17.And remember Our slave Dawud, endued with Al-Ayd. Verily, he was ever oft-returning in all matters and in repentance.)
(18. Verily, We made the mountains to glorify Our praises with him in the
Ashi and Ishraq.)
(19. And (so did) the birds assembled, all obedient to him.)
(20. We made his kingdom strong and gave him Al-Hikmah and sound judgement in speech and decision.)
Al-Ayd means strength in knowledge and action. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said, "Al-Ayd means strength.'' Mujahid said, "Al-Ayd means strength in obedience to Allah.'' Qatadah said, "Dawud, peace be upon him, was given strength in worship and the proper understanding of Islam.'' He told us that he, peace be upon him, used to spend a third of the night in prayer, and he fasted for half a lifetime. This was reported in the Two Sahihs, where it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said:
«أَحَبُّ الصَّلَاةِ إِلَى اللهِ تَعَالَى صَلَاةُ دَاوُدَ، وَأَحَبُّ الصِّيَامِ إِلَى اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ صِيَامُ دَاوُدَ، كَانَ يَنَامُ نِصْفَ اللَّيْلِ، وَيَقُومُ ثُلُثَهُ، وَيَنَامُ سُدُسَهُ، وَكَانَ يَصُومُ يَوْمًا وَيُفْطِرُ يَوْمًا، وَلَا يَفِرُّ إِذَا لَاقَى، وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ أَوَّابًا»
(The most beloved of prayer to Allah is the prayer of Dawud, and the most beloved of fasting to Allah is the fasting of Dawud. He used to sleep for half of the night, stand in prayer for a third of the night, then sleep for a sixth of the night, and he used to fast alternate days. He never fled from the battlefield, and he always turned to Allah.) which means that he turned to Allah with regard to all of his affairs.
إِنَّا سَخَّرْنَا الجِبَالَ مَعَهُ يُسَبِّحْنَ بِالْعَشِىِّ وَالإِشْرَاقِ
(Verily, We made the mountains to glorify Our praises with him in the `Ashi and Ishraq. ) means, Allah caused the mountains to glorify His praises with him at sunrise and at the end of the day. This is like the Ayah:
يَجِبَالُ أَوِّبِى مَعَهُ وَالطَّيْرَ
(O you mountains. Glorify (Allah) with him! And you birds (also)!) (34:10). The birds also used to glorify Allah's praises with him. If a bird flew by him and heard him chanting the Zabur, it would not go away; instead it would stay hovering in the air, glorifying Allah along with him. And the lofty mountains would respond to him and echo his glorification of Allah. Ibn Jarir recorded from `Abdullah bin Al-Harith bin Nawfal that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, did not pray Ad-Duha. `Abdullah said: "So I took him to Umm Hani, may Allah be pleased with her, and said to her, `Tell him what you told me.' She said, `The Messenger of Allah entered my house on the day of the conquest of Makkah. He called for water to be poured into a large bowl, then he called for a garment which he used as a screen between me and him, and he washed himself. Then he sprinkled water around the house and prayed eight Rak`ahs. This was Ad-Duha, and its standing, bowing, prostration and sitting were all equal in brevity.' Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, left, saying, `I have read the Qur'an from cover to cover, and I never knew about Salat Ad-Duha until now!' Then he recited:
يُسَبِّحْنَ بِالْعَشِىِّ وَالإِشْرَاقِ
(glorify Our praises with him in the `Ashi and Ishraq.) I used to say, "What is Salat Al-Ishraq, but now I know what it is.''
(And (so did) the birds assembled,) meaning, hovering in the air.
كُلٌّ لَّهُ أَوَّابٌ
(all obedient to him.) means, they obeyed him and followed him in glorifying Allah. Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Malik said, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam and Ibn Zayd:
كُلٌّ لَّهُ أَوَّابٌ
(all obedient to him.) means, "Following his commands.''
(We made his kingdom strong) means, `We gave him complete dominion with all that kings need.' Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said, "He was the strongest and most powerful of the people of this world.''
(and gave him Al-Hikmah) Mujahid said, "This means understanding, reason and intelligence.'' Qatadah said, "The Book of Allah and following what is in it.'' As-Suddi said:
(and sound judgement) Shurayh Al-Qadi and Ash-Sha`bi said, "Sound judgement is testimony and oaths.'' Qatadah said, "Two witnesses for the plaintiff or an oath on the part of the defendant is meaning of sound judgement.'' This is the sound judgement which the Prophets and Messengers judged and the believers and righteous accepted. This is the basis of this Ummah's judicial system until the Day of Resurrection. This was the view of Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami. Mujahid and As-Suddi said, "It means passing the right judgement and understanding the case.'' Mujahid also said, "It is soundness in speech and in judgement, and this includes all of the above.'' This is what is meant, and this is the view favored by Ibn Jarir.
Yakni sebagaimana para rasul sebelummu bersabar. Hal itu, karena ucapan mereka tidaklah merugikan kebenaran sedikit pun dan mereka tidak merugikanmu sedikit pun, yang mereka rugikan adalah diri mereka sendiri.
Setelah Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala memerintahkan Rasul-Nya untuk bersabar terhadap sikap kaumnya, maka Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala memerintahkan Beliau untuk meminta bantuan agar dapat bersabar dengan beribadah kepada Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala saja dan mengingat keadaan orang-orang yang ahli ibadah sebagaimana dalam ayat lain, âMaka bersabarlah kamu atas apa yang mereka katakan, dan bertasbihlah dengan memuji Tuhanmu, sebelum terbit matahari dan sebelum terbenamnya dan bertasbih pulalah pada waktu-waktu di malam hari dan pada waktu-waktu di siang hari, agar kamu merasa senang,â (Terj. Thaha: 130)
Yakni kuat dalam beribadah baik dengan anggota badannya maupun dengan hatinya. Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bersabda:
Kata âAwwaabâ artinya banyak kembali kepada Allah dalam segala urusan, yaitu dengan kembali kepada-Nya, mencintai-Nya, beribadah kepada-Nya, takut dan berharap kepada-Nya, banyak bertadharruâ dan berdoa. Demikian pula kembali kepada-Nya ketika tergelincir, yaitu dengan berhenti melakukan dosa tersebut dan bertobat dengan tobat nasuha (yang murni).