الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ وَيَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبُخْلِ وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۗ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُهِينًا
Who are stingy and enjoin upon [other] people stinginess and conceal what Allah has given them of His bounty - and We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment -
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(Who hoard their wealth and enjoin avarice on others…) [4:37]. Most Qur’anic exegetes said: “This wasrevealed about the Jews when they concealed the description of Muhammad, Allah bless him and give himpeace, and did not reveal it to people despite the fact that they had it written in their Scriptures”. And al-Kalbi said: “This refers to the Jews; they failed to be truthful to those who came to them with regard to thedescription of Muhammad, Allah bless him and give him peace, despite the fact that they had it writtendown in their Scriptures”. Said Mujahid: “The three verses up to His saying (…when Allah is ever Aware ofthem) [4:39] were revealed about the Jews”. And Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn Zayd said: “This was revealed about agroup of Jews who used to go to some men from the Helpers, mixing with them and giving them advice.They used to say to them: ‘Do not spend your wealth for we fear poverty for you’, and so Allah, exalted isHe, revealed (Who hoard their wealth and enjoin avarice on others)”.
الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ وَيَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبُخْلِ وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَآ ءَاتَـهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَـفِرِينَ عَذَاباً مُّهِيناً - وَالَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَلَهُمْ رِئَـآءَ النَّاسِ وَلاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَمَن يَكُنِ الشَّيْطَـنُ لَهُ قَرِيناً فَسَآءَ قِرِيناً - وَمَاذَا عَلَيْهِمْ لَوْ ءَامَنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَأَنفَقُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِهِم عَلِيماً
(37. Those who are stingy and encourage people to be stingy and hide what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounties. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a disgraceful torment.)
(38. And (also) those who spend of their wealth to be seen of men, and believe not in Allah and the Last Day, and whoever takes Shaytan as an intimate; then what a dreadful intimate he has!)
(39. And what loss have they if they had believed in Allah and in the Last Day, and they spend out of what Allah has given them for sustenamce And Allah is Ever All-Knower of them.)
Allah chastises the stingy behavior of those who refuse to spend their money for what Allah ordered them, such as being kind to parents and compassionate to relatives, orphans, the poor, the relative who is also a neighbor, the companion during travel, the needy wayfarer, the slaves and servants. Such people do not give Allah's right from their wealth, and they assist in the spread of stingy behavior. The Messenger of Allah said,
«وَأَيُّ دَاءٍ أَدْوَأُ مِنَ الْبُخْل»
(What disease is more serious than being stingy) He also said,
«إِيَّاكُمْ وَالشُّحَّ، فَإِنَّهُ أَهْلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ، أَمَرَهُمْ بِالْقَطِيْعَةِ فَقَطَعُوا، وَأَمَرَهُمْ بِالْفُجُورِ فَفَجَرُوا»
(Beware of being stingy, for it destroyed those who were before you, as it encouraged them to cut their relations and they did, and it encouraged them to commit sin and they did.) Allah said,
وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَآ ءَاتَـهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ
(and hide what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounties,) Therefore, the miser is ungrateful for Allah's favor, for its effect does not appear on him, whether in his food, clothes or what he gives. Similarly, Allah said,
إِنَّ الإِنسَـنَ لِرَبِّهِ لَكَنُودٌ - وَإِنَّهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ لَشَهِيدٌ
(Verily, man is ungrateful to his Lord. And to that he bears witness.) by his manners and conduct,
وَإِنَّهُ لِحُبِّ الْخَيْرِ لَشَدِيدٌ
(And verily, he is violent in the love of wealth.) Allah said,
وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَآ ءَاتَـهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ
(and hide what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounties) and this is why He threatened them,
وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَـفِرِينَ عَذَاباً مُّهِيناً
(And We have prepared for the disbelievers a disgraceful torment.) Kufr means to cover something. Therefore, the Bakhil (miser) covers the favors that Allah has blessed him with, meaning he does not spread those favors. So he is described by the term Kafir (ungrateful) regarding the favors that Allah granted him. A Hadith states that,
«إِنَّ اللهَ إِذَا أَنْعَمَ نِعْمَةً عَلى عَبْدٍ،أَحَبَّ أَنْ يَظْهَرَ أَثَرُهَا عَلَيْه»
(When Allah grants a servant a favor, He likes that its effect appears on him.) Some of the Salaf stated that this Ayah 4:37 is describing the Jews who hid the knowledge they had about the description of Muhammad, and there is no doubt that the general meaning of the Ayah includes this. The apparent wording for this Ayah indicates that it is talking about being stingy with money, even though miserly conduct with knowledge is also included. The Ayah talks about spending on relatives and the weak, just as the Ayah after it,
وَالَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَلَهُمْ رِئَـآءَ النَّاسِ
(And (also) those who spend of their wealth to be seen of men, ) Allah first mentions the punished misers who do not spend, then He mentions those who spend to show off to gain the reputation that they are generous, not for the Face of Allah. A Hadith states that the first three persons on whom the fire will feed are a scholar, a fighter and a spender who shows off with their actions. For instance,
«يَقُولُ صَاحِبُ الْمَالِ: مَا تَرَكْتُ مِنْ شَيْءٍ تُحِبُّ أَنْ يُنْفَقَ فِيهِ، إِلَّا أَنْفَقْتُ فِي سَبِيلِكَ، فَيَقُولُ اللهُ: كَذَبْتَ، إِنَّمَا أَرَدْتَ أَنْ يُقَالَ: جَوَادٌ، فَقَدْدِقيل»
(The wealthy will say, "I did not leave any area that You like to be spent on, but I spent on it in Your cause.'' Allah will say, "You lie, you only did that so that it is said, `He is generous.' And it was said...'') meaning you acquired your reward in the life, and this is indeed what you sought with your action. This is why Allah said,
وَلاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ
(and believe not in Allah and the Last Day,) meaning, it is Shaytan who lured them to commit this evil action, instead of performing the good deed as it should be performed. Shaytan encouraged, excited and lured them by making the evil appear good,
وَمَن يَكُنِ الشَّيْطَـنُ لَهُ قَرِيناً فَسَآءَ قِرِيناً
(And whoever takes Shaytan as an intimate; then what a dreadful intimate he has!) Allah then said,
وَمَاذَا عَلَيْهِمْ لَوْ ءَامَنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَأَنفَقُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَهُمُ اللَّهُ
(And what loss have they if they had believed in Allah and in the Last Day, and they spend out of what Allah has given them for sustenance) This Ayah means, what harm would it cause them if they believe in Allah, go on the righteous path, replace showing off with sincerity, have faith in Allah, and await His promise in the Hereafter, for those who do good and spend what He has given them on what He likes and is pleased with. Allah's statement:
وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِهِم عَلِيماً
(And Allah is Ever All-Knower of them.) means, He has perfect knowledge of their intentions, whether good or evil. Indeed, Allah knows those who deserve success, and He grants them success and guidance, directing them to perform righteous actions that will earn them His pleasure. He also knows those who deserve failure and expulsion from His great mercy, which amounts to utter failure in this life and the Hereafter for them, we seek refuge in Allah from this evil end.
Terhadap sesuatu yang wajib diberikan oleh mereka atau ada hak-hak wajib yang mesti mereka keluarkan.
Baik dengan ucapan maupun dengan sikap mereka.
Berupa ilmu dan harta. Seperti halnya orang-orang Yahudi. Mereka menyembunyikan pengetahuan tentang kenabian Muhammad shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam, menggantinya dengan menampilkan yang batil sehingga menghalangi manusia dari masuk ke dalam agama yang dibawa Beliau. Mereka menggabung antara sikap kikir terhadap harta, kikir terhadap ilmu dan ditambah dengan upaya merugikan diri dan orang lain. Sifat seperti ini adalah sifat yang ada dalam diri orang-orang kafir. Oleh karena itu, di akhir ayat Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala berfirman, "Kami telah menyediakan untuk orang-orang kafirâ¦dst."
Ada yang mengatakan bahwa maksud "kafir" di sini adalah kufur terhadap nikmat Allah (tidak bersyukur). Hal itu, karena kikir, menyuruh orang lain berbuat kikir dan menyembunyikan karunia Allah berarti tidak mensyukuri nikmat Allah.