فَسِيحُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ ۙ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ مُخْزِي الْكَافِرِينَ
So travel freely, [O disbelievers], throughout the land [during] four months but know that you cannot cause failure to Allah and that Allah will disgrace the disbelievers.
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(O ye who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasure in disbeliefrather than faith) [9:23-24]. Said al-Kalbi: “When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, was commanded to migrate to Medina, some men went to their fathers, brothers or wives and said:'We have been commanded to migrate to Medina'. Thus, some people liked the command and hastened toexecute it, while the wives, dependents and children of others hung on to some others, saying: 'We beseechyou by Allah not to leave us to no one, causing our waste and peril'. The hearts of these softened for themand, as a result, they refrained from migrating. These words of Allah, exalted is He, were then revealed torebuke them (O ye who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasurein disbelief rather than faith…)”. As for those who stayed back in Mecca and did not migrate, Allah, exalted isHe, revealed (then wait till Allah bringeth His command to pass…) [9:24], meaning fighting and theconquest of Mecca.
بَرَآءَةٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ - فَسِيحُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ مُخْزِى الْكَـفِرِينَ
(1. Freedom from (all) obligations (is declared) from Allah and His Messenger () to those of the Mushrikin (idolaters), with whom you made a treaty.)
(2. So travel freely (O Mushrikin) for four months (as you will) throughout the land, but know that you cannot escape (from the punishment of) Allah; and Allah will disgrace the disbelievers.)
This honorable Surah (chapter 9) was one of the last Surahs to be revealed to the Messenger of Allah . Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara' said, "The last Ayah to be revealed was,
يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِى الْكَلَـلَةِ
(They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: "Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah.'') 4:176, while the last Surah to be revealed was Bara'ah.'' The Basmalah was not mentioned in the beginning of this Surah because the Companions did not write it in the complete copy of the Qur'an (Mushaf) they collected, following the Commander of the faithful, `Uthman bin `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him. The first part of this honorable Surah was revealed to the Messenger of Allah when he returned from the battle of Tabuk, during the Hajj season, which the Prophet thought about attending. But he remembered that the idolators would still attend that Hajj, as was usual in past years, and that they perform Tawaf around the House while naked. He disliked to associate with them and sent Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, to lead Hajj that year and show the people their rituals, commanding him to inform the idolators that they would not be allowed to participate in Hajj after that season. He commanded him to proclaim,
بَرَآءَةٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ
(Freedom from (all) obligations (is declared) from Allah and His Messenger ()...), to the people. When Abu Bakr had left, the Messenger sent `Ali bin Abu Talib to be the one to deliver this news to the idolators on behalf of the Messenger , for he was the Messenger's cousin. We will mention this story later.
بَرَآءَةٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ
(Freedom from obligations from Allah and His Messenger ()), is a declaration of freedom from all obligations from Allah and His Messenger ,
إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَفَسِيحُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ
(to those of the Mushrikin, with whom you made a treaty. So travel freely (Mushrikin) for four months (as you will) throughout the land) 9:1-2. This Ayah refers to idolators who had indefinite treaties and those, whose treaties with Muslims ended in less than four months. The terms of these treaties were restricted to four months only. As for those whose term of peace ended at a specific date later (than the four months), then their treaties would end when their terms ended, no matter how long afterwards, for Allah said,
فَأَتِمُّواْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَهْدَهُمْ إِلَى مُدَّتِهِمْ
(So fulfill their treaty for them until the end of their term)9:4. So whoever had a coventant with Allah's Messenger then it would last until its period expired, this was reported from Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and others. We will also mention a Hadith on this matter. Abu Ma`shar Al-Madani said that Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and several others said, "The Messenger of Allah sent Abu Bakr to lead the Hajj rituals on the ninth year (of Hijrah). He also sent `Ali bin Abi Talib with thirty or forty Ayat from Bara'ah (At-Tawbah), and he recited them to the people, giving the idolators four months during which they freely move about in the land. He recited these Ayat on the day of `Arafah (ninth of Dhul-Hijjah). The idolators were given twenty more days (till the end) of Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram, Safar, Rabi` Al-Awwal and ten days from Rabi` Ath-Thani. He proclaimed to them in their camping areas, `No Mushrik will be allowed to perform Hajj after this year, nor a naked person to perform Tawaf around the House.''' So Allah said,
Dan setelah berlalu empat bulan, maka tidak ada keamanan lagi bagimu. Hal ini bagi mereka yang mengadakan perjanjian mutlak atau dibatasi sampai empat bulan atau kurang, adapun mereka yang mengadakan perjanjian lebih dari empat bulan, maka harus dipenuhi sampai habis waktunya jika tidak dikhawatirkan pengkhianatan darinya dan tidak memulai membatalkan perjanjian. Mereka yang diberi tangguh empat bulan itu ialah yang memungkiri janji dengan Nabi Muhammad shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Adapun mereka yang tidak memungkiri janjinya, maka perjanjian itu diteruskan sampai berakhir masa yang ditentukan dalam perjanjian itu. Setelah masa itu berakhir, maka tidak ada lagi perdamaian dengan orang-orang musyrik.
Allah memperingatkan kepada mereka yang mengikat perjanjian selama masa perjanjian berlangsung, bahwa meskipun mereka aman, namun sesungguhnya mereka tidak dapat melemahkan Allah dan tidak dapat lolos dari azab-Nya, dan siapa saja yang tetap di atas kesyirkannya, maka Allah akan menghinakannya. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan mereka masuk Islam, kecuali mereka yang keras hatinya dan tidak peduli terhadap ancaman Allah Azza wa Jalla.
Di dunia dengan dihalalkan darahnya dan di akhirat dengan diazab dalam api neraka.