إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad] - those [among them] who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness - will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.
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(Lo! Those who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews…)[2:62]. Al-Hafiz Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad informed us> ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Ja‘far the al-Hafiz> Abu Yahya al-Razi> Sahl ibn ‘Uthman al-‘Askari> Yahya ibn Abi Za’idah who said: “Ibn Jurayj said>‘Abd Allah ibn Kuthayr> Mujahid who said: ‘When Salman related to the Prophet, Allah bless him and givehim peace, the story of the monks, the Prophet told him that they will dwell in hell fire’. Salman said: ‘Thewhole earth became gloomy for me, but then this verse was revealed (Lo! Those who believe (in that whichis revealed unto thee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews) up to Allah’s saying (and there shall no fearcome upon them neither shall they grieve), and it was as if a mountain had been lifted away from me’ ”.Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Marwazi informed us> Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Haddadi> Abu Yazid>Ishaq ibn Ibrahim> ‘Amr> Asbat> al-Suddi who said: “The verse (Lo! Those who believe (in that which isrevealed unto thee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews…) was revealed about the monks with whomSalman al-Farisi kept company. When Salman went to see the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and givehim peace, he informed him about their worship and striving. He said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! They used topray and fast; they believed in you and bore witness that you will be sent as a prophet’. When Salmanfinished his praise of them, Allah’s Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘O Salman! Theyare of the dwellers of hell fire’. Allah then revealed (Lo! Those who believe (in that which is revealed untothee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews) up to His saying (neither shall they grieve)”. Muhammad ibnAhmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ja‘far informed us> Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Zakariyya’> Muhammad ibn‘Abd al-Rahman al-Daghuli> Abu Bakr ibn Abi Khaythamah> ‘Amr ibn Hammad> Asbat> al-Suddi> AbuMalik> Abu Salih> Ibn ‘Abbas> Murrah> Ibn Mas‘ud> also from some of the Companions of the Prophet,Allah bless him and give him peace: “(Lo! Those who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee,Muhammad), and those who are Jews) was revealed about Salman al-Farisi, a notable of Jundishapur; whatfollows this verse was revealed about the Jews”.
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَالَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالنَّصَـرَى وَالصَّـبِئِينَ مَنْ ءَامَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَـلِحاً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
(62. Verily, those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians (Sabi'in), whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day and does righteous good deeds shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.)
After Allah described the condition - and punishment - of those who defy His commands, fall into His prohibitions and transgress set limits by committing prohibited acts, He stated that the earlier nations who were righteous and obedient received the rewards for their good deeds. This shall be the case, until the Day of Judgment. Therefore, whoever follows the unlettered Messenger and Prophet shall acquire eternal happiness and shall neither fear from what will happen in the future nor become sad for what has been lost in the past. Similarly, Allah said,
أَلا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَآءَ اللَّهِ لاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
(No doubt! Verily, the Awliya' of Allah, no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve) (10:62). The angels will proclaim to the dying believers, as mentioned,
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَـمُواْ تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ أَلاَّ تَخَافُواْ وَلاَ تَحْزَنُواْ وَأَبْشِرُواْ بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِى كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ
(Verily, those who say: "Our Lord is Allah (alone),'' and then they stand firm, on them the angels will descend (at the time of their death) (saying): "Fear not, nor grieve! But receive the glad tidings of Paradise which you have been promised!''). (41:30)
`Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated from Ibn `Abbas, about,
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَالَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالنَّصَـرَى وَالصَّـبِئِينَ مَنْ ءَامَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ
(Verily, those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians, whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day) that Allah revealed the following Ayah afterwards,
وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الإِسْلَـمِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَـسِرِينَ
(And whoever seeks religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers) (3:85). This statement by Ibn `Abbas indicates that Allah does not accept any deed or work from anyone, unless it conforms to the Law of Muhammad that is, after Allah sent Muhammad . Before that, every person who followed the guidance of his own Prophet was on the correct path, following the correct guidance and was saved.
The Jews are the followers of Prophet Musa, who used to refer to the Tawrah for judgment. Yahud is a word that means, `repenting', just as Musa said,
إِنَّا هُدْنَـآ إِلَيْكَ
مَنْ أَنصَارِى إِلَى اللَّهِ قَالَ الْحَوَارِيُّونَ نَحْنُ أَنْصَارُ اللَّهِ
("Who will be my helpers in Allah's cause'' Al-Hawariyyun said: "We are the helpers of Allah.'') (61:14) It was said that they were called `Nasara', because they inhabited a land called An-Nasirah (Nazareth), as Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj and Ibn `Abbas were reported to have said, Allah knows best. Nasara is certainly plural for Nasran. When Allah sent Muhammad as the Last and Final Prophet and Messenger to all of the Children of Adam, mankind was required to believe in him, obey him and refrain from what he prohibited them; those who do this are true believers. The Ummah of Muhammad was called `Mu'minin' (believers), because of the depth of their faith and certainty, and because they believe in all of the previous Prophets and matters of the Unseen.
There is a difference of opinion over the identity of the Sabians. Sufyan Ath-Thawri said that Layth bin Abu Sulaym said that Mujahid said that, "The Sabians are between the Majus, the Jews and the Christians. They do not have a specific religion.'' Similar is reported from Ibn Abi Najih. Similar statements were attributed to `Ata' and Sa`id bin Jubayr. They (others) say that the Sabians are a sect among the People of the Book who used to read the Zabur (Psalms), others say that they are a people who worshipped the angels or the stars. It appears that the closest opinion to the truth, and Allah knows best, is Mujahid's statement and those who agree with him like Wahb bin Munabbih, that the Sabians are neither Jews nor Christians nor Majus nor polytheists. Rather, they did not have a specific religion that they followed and enforced, because they remained living according to their Fitrah (instinctual nature). This is why the idolators used to call whoever embraced Islam a `Sabi', meaning, that he abandoned all religions that existed on the earth. Some scholars stated that the Sabians are those who never received a message by any Prophet. And Allah knows best.
Shabiin ialah orang-orang yang mengikuti syari'at nabi-nabi zaman dahulu. Ada pula yang mengatakan bahwa mereka adalah orang-orang yang menyembah bintang atau dewa-dewa. Dan ada yang mengatakan bahwa mereka adalah orang masih tetap di atas fitrahnya, wallahu a'lam.
Orang-orang yang beriman dari kalangan ummat ini, begitu pula orang-orang Yahudi, Nasrani dan Shabiin yang mau beriman kepada Allah, termasuk juga beriman kepada Nabi Muhammad shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam, percaya kepada hari akhir dan mengerjakan amalan yang saleh, maka mereka akan mendapat pahala dari Allah.
Disebutkannya ayat ini setelah sebelumnya menerangkan tindakan Bani Israil dan akhlak mereka yang buruk serta celaan kepada mereka di antara faedahnya adalah agar mereka (Bani Israil) tidak berputus asa untuk bertobat dan beriman kepada Nabi Muhammad shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam, yakni jika mereka mau merubah sikap dengan iman (masuk Islam) dan beramal shalih, maka mereka akan memperoleh kemuliaan di dunia dan di akhirat (lihat juga surat Al Maa'idah: 65). Dalam ayat tersebut, Allah juga ingin menerangkan bahwa celaan tersebut hanyalah bagi mereka yang mengikuti jejak nenek moyang mereka yang salah. Dan agar tidak ada kesan bahwa hal ini khusus mereka, maka Allah menyebutkan juga bahwa tidak hanya mereka, bahkan umat yang lain; baik Yahudi, Nasrani, Shaabi'in dan umat lainnya jika mereka sama mau beriman dengan masuk Islam dan mau beramal shalih, maka mereka akan mendapat pahala dari Allah, mereka tidak perlu takut dengan apa yang akan mereka hadapi berupa perkara akhirat, dan tidak perlu bersedih hati terhadap apa saja yang telah berlalu.