مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُوا مَا عَاهَدُوا اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ ۖ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ قَضَىٰ نَحْبَهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَنْتَظِرُ ۖ وَمَا بَدَّلُوا تَبْدِيلًا
Among the believers are men true to what they promised Allah. Among them is he who has fulfilled his vow [to the death], and among them is he who awaits [his chance]. And they did not alter [the terms of their commitment] by any alteration -
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(Of the believers are men who are true to that which they covenanted with Allah…) [33:23]. AbuMuhammad Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim informed us> 'Abd Allah ibn Humayd> Makki ibn 'Abdan>'Abd Allah ibn Hashim> Bahz ibn Asad> Sulayman ibn al-Mughirah> Thabit> Anas who said: “My uncle Anasibn al-Nadr - after whom I was named Anas - failed to take part in the Battle of Badr. When he returned, hewas extremely pained that he did not participate in Badr. He said: 'I was absent from the first battle foughtby the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. By Allah, if Allah, glorified and exalted is He,enables me to take part in any future fighting, He will see what I will do!' At the Battle of Uhud, when theMuslims were exposed, he said: 'O Allah, I exonerate myself from that which these idolaters have broughtand seek Your pardon from what these - i.e. the Muslims - have done'. He then proceeded with the sword inhis hand. On the way, he met Sa'd ibn Mu'adh and said to him: 'O Sa'd, by Him in Whose Hand is my soul, Ican smell the scent of the Garden by Uhud'. He fought the idolaters until he was killed. We found himamong the dead. He had suffered eighty something wounds, ranging from a blow with the sword, a stabwith spear to a hit by a arrow. They mutilated him to the extent that we did not recognise him. It was hissister who identified him by his finger. This verse was then revealed (Of the believers are men who are trueto that which they covenanted with Allah…). We used to say: 'This verse was revealed about him and hisfellow Muslims [who died fighting]' ”. Narrated by Muslim from Muhammad ibn Hatim from Bahz ibn Asad.Sa'id ibn Ahmad ibn Ja'far al-Mu'adhdhin informed us> Abu 'Ali ibn Abi Bakr al-Faqih> Ibrahim ibn 'Abd Allahal-Zabibi> Bundar> Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah al-Ansari> his father> Thumamah> Anas ibn Malik who said:“This verse was revealed about Anas ibn al-Nadr (Of the believers are men who are true to that which theycovenanted with Allah)”. This was narrated by Bukhari from Bundar. (Some of them have paid their vow bydeath (in battle), and some of them still are waiting…) [33:23]. This verse was revealed about Talhah ibn'Ubayd Allah. He remained firm around the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, at theBattle of Uhud until his hand was hurt. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said atthat point: “O Allah, decree the Garden for Talhah!” Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah al-Tamimiinformed us> Abu'l-Shaykh al-Hafiz> Ahmad ibn Ja'far ibn Nasr al-Razi> al-'Abbas ibn Isma'il al-Raqqi>Isma'il ibn Yahya al-Baghdadi> Abu Sinan> al-Dahhak> al-Nizal ibn Sabrah> 'Ali who said about Talhah:“That is a man about whom a verse from the Book of Allah, exalted is He, has been revealed (Some of themhave paid their vow by death (in battle), and some of them still are waiting). Talhah is of those who havealready paid their vows, he will face no reckoning regarding that which he will do in the future”. 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hamdan informed us> Ahmad ibn Ja'far ibn Malik> 'Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal> hisfather> Waki'> Talhah ibn Yahya who reported that one day the Prophet, Allah bless him and give himpeace, passed by Talhah and said: “This one is of those who have already paid their vows”.
مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبْدِيلاً لِّيَجْزِىَ اللَّهُ الصَّـدِقِينَ بِصِدْقِهِمْالْمُنَـفِقِينَ إِن شَآءَ أَوْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً
(23. Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah; of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah; and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed in the least.)
(24. That Allah may reward the men of truth for their truth, and punish the hypocrites, if He wills, or accept their repentance by turning to them. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)
When Allah mentions how the hypocrites broke their promise to Him that they would not turn their backs, He describes the believers as firmly adhering to their covenant and their promise:
صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ
(they have been true to their covenant with Allah; of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah;) Some of them said: "Met their appointed time (i.e., death).'' Al-Bukhari said, "Their covenant, and refers back to the beginning of the Ayah.''
وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبْدِيلاً
(and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed in the least.) means, they have never changed or broken their covenant with Allah. Al-Bukhari recorded that Zayd bin Thabit said: "When we wrote down the Mushaf, an Ayah from Surat Al-Ahzab was missing, which I used to hear the Messenger of Allah reciting. I did not find it with anyone except Khuzaymah bin Thabit Al-Ansari, may Allah be pleased with him, whose testimony the Messenger of Allah counted as equal to that of two other men. (The Ayah in question was:)
مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ
(Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah;)'' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari but not by Muslim, It was also recorded by Ahmad in his Musnad, and by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i in the chapters on Tafsir in their Sunans. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih. Al-Bukhari also recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "We think that this Ayah was revealed concerning Anas bin An-Nadr, may Allah be pleased with him:
مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ
(Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah.)'' This was reported only by Al-Bukhari, but there are corroborating reports with other chains of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said: "My paternal uncle Anas bin Al-Nadr, may Allah be pleased with him, after whom I was named, was not present with this Messenger of Allah at Badr, and this distressed him. He said: `The first battle at which the Messenger of Allah was present, and I was absent; if Allah shows me another battle with the Messenger of Allah , Allah will see what I will do!' He did not want to say more than that. He was present with the Messenger of Allah at Uhud, where he met Sa`d bin Mu`adh, may Allah be pleased with him. Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said to him, `O Abu `Amr! Where are you going' He replied, `I long for the fragrance of Paradise and I have found it near the mountain of Uhud.' He fought them until he was killed, may Allah be pleased with him. Eighty-odd stab wounds and spear wounds were found on his body, and his sister, my paternal aunt Ar-Rabayyi` bint Al-Nadr said, `I only recognized my brother by his fingertips.' Then this Ayah was revealed:
مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبْدِيلاً
(Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah; of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah; and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed in the least.) They used to think that it had been revealed concerning him and his companions, may Allah be pleased with them.'' This was also recorded by Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. Ibn Jarir narrated that Musa bin Talhah said: "Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan, may Allah be pleased with him, stood up and said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
«طَلْحَةُ مِمَّنْ قَضَى نَحْبَه»
(Talhah is one of those who have fulfilled their Nahbah.)''' Mujahid said concerning the Ayah:
فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ
(of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah;) "Their covenant,
وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَنتَظِرُ
(and some of them are still waiting) they are waiting for battle so that they can do well. '' Al-Hasan said:
فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ
(of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah;) "They died true to their covenant and loyal, and some are still waiting to die in a similar manner, and some of them have never changed in the least.'' This was also the view of Qatadah and Ibn Zayd. Some of them said that the word Nahbah means a vow.
وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبْدِيلاً
(but they have never changed in the least.) means, they never changed their covenant or were disloyal or committed treachery, but they persisted in what they had promised and did not break their vow, unlike the hypocrites who said:
إِنَّ بُيُوتَنَا عَوْرَةٌ وَمَا هِىَ بِعَوْرَةٍ إِن يُرِيدُونَ إِلاَّ فِرَاراً
("Truly, our homes lie open.'' And they lay not open. They but wished to flee.) 33:13
وَلَقَدْ كَانُواْ عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ مِن قَبْلُ لاَ يُوَلُّونَ الاٌّدْبَـرَ
(And indeed they had already made a covenant with Allah not to turn their backs,) 33:15
لِّيَجْزِىَ اللَّهُ الصَّـدِقِينَ بِصِدْقِهِمْالْمُنَـفِقِينَ إِن شَآءَ أَوْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ
(That Allah may reward the men of truth for their truth, and punish the hypocrites, if He wills, or accept their repentance by turning to them.) Allah tests His servants with fear and shaking so as to tell the evil from the good, as each will be known by his deeds. Although Allah knows what the outcome will be before anything happens, still He does not punish anyone on the basis of His knowledge until they actually do what He knows they will do. As Allah says:
وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَـهِدِينَ مِنكُمْ وَالصَّـبِرِينَ وَنَبْلُوَ أَخْبَـرَكُمْ
(And surely, We shall try you till We test those who strive hard and patient, and We shall test your facts.) (47:31). This refers to knowing something after it happens, even though Allah knows it before it comes to pass. Allah says:
مَّا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَذَرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى مَآ أَنتُمْ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى يَمِيزَ الْخَبِيثَ مِنَ الطَّيِّبِ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُطْلِعَكُمْ عَلَى الْغَيْبِ
(Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good. Nor will Allah disclose to you the secrets of the Unseen) (3:179). Allah says here:
لِّيَجْزِىَ اللَّهُ الصَّـدِقِينَ بِصِدْقِهِمْ
(That Allah may reward the men of truth for their truth,) meaning, for their patience in adhering to the covenant they had made with Allah and keeping their promise.
(and punish the hypocrites, ) who are the ones who broke the covenant and went against the commands of Allah, for which they deserve to be punished, but they are subject to His will in this world. If He wills, He will leave them as they are until they meet Him in the Hereafter, when He will punish them, or if He wills, He will guide them to give up their hypocrisy and to believe and do righteous deeds after they had been wrongdoers and sinners. Since His mercy and kindness towards His creation prevail over His wrath, He says:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً
(Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)
Imam Bukhari meriwayatkan dengan sanadnya yang sampai kepada Anas radhiyallahu 'anhu ia berkata, âPamanku Anas bin An Nadhr tidak hadir dalam perang Badar. Ia berkata, âWahai Rasulullah, aku pernah tidak hadir dalam peperangan pertama yang engkau lakukan terhadap orang-orang musyrik. Sungguh, jika Allah menghadirkan aku dalam peperangan dengan kaum musyrik, tentu Allah akan melihat apa yang aku lakukan.â Ketika tiba perang Uhud, dan kaum muslimin terpukul mundur, ia berkata, âYa Allah, aku meminta uzur kepadamu terhadap perbuatan mereka ini âyakni kawan-kawannya-, dan aku berlepas diri kepada-Mu dari mereka ini,â yakni kaum musyrik. Ia kemudian maju, lalu ditemui Saâad bin Muâadz, kemudian ia berkata kepadanya, âWahai Saâad bin Muâadz! Surga. Demi Tuhan si Nadhr, sesungguhnya aku mencium wanginya di balik Uhud.â Saâad berkata, âAku tidak sanggup melakukan seperti yang dilakukannya.â Anas berkata, âKami dapati dirinya dipenuhi 80 lebih sabetan pedang, tusukan tombak, atau lemparan panah. Kami temukan dia telah terbunuh dan dicincang oleh kaum musyrik. Tidak ada yang mengetahuinya selain saudarinya berdasarkan jari-jamarinya.â Anas melanjutkan kata-katanya, âKami mengira atau menyangka bahwa ayat (tersebut) ini turun berkenaan dengan dirinya dan orang yang semisalnya, âDi antara orang-orang mukmin itu ada orang-orang yang menepati apa yang telah mereka janjikan kepada Allahâ¦dst.â
Yaitu tetap teguh bersama Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Mereka memenuhi janji itu dan menyempurnakannya serta mengorbankan jiwa raga mereka untuk mencari keridhaan-Nya.
Mati dalam keadaan hendak memenuhi hak-Nya atau terbunuh di jalan Allah.
Maksudnya berusaha untuk memenuhi janjinya itu.
Tidak seperti orang-orang munafik. Mereka inilah laki-laki yang sejati, adapun kaum munafik, maka mereka hanya berpenampilan lelaki, tetapi sifatnya tidak demikian.