يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتَ النَّبِيِّ إِلَّا أَنْ يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَىٰ طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَاظِرِينَ إِنَاهُ وَلَٰكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُوا فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانْتَشِرُوا وَلَا مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍ ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤْذِي النَّبِيَّ فَيَسْتَحْيِي مِنْكُمْ ۖ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ ۚ وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَنْ تُؤْذُوا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَنْ تَنْكِحُوا أَزْوَاجَهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ أَبَدًا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكُمْ كَانَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمًا
O you who have believed, do not enter the houses of the Prophet except when you are permitted for a meal, without awaiting its readiness. But when you are invited, then enter; and when you have eaten, disperse without seeking to remain for conversation. Indeed, that [behavior] was troubling the Prophet, and he is shy of [dismissing] you. But Allah is not shy of the truth. And when you ask [his wives] for something, ask them from behind a partition. That is purer for your hearts and their hearts. And it is not [conceivable or lawful] for you to harm the Messenger of Allah or to marry his wives after him, ever. Indeed, that would be in the sight of Allah an enormity.
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(O Ye who believe! Enter not the dwellings of the Prophet…) [33:53]. Most of the commentators of theQur’an said: “When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, married Zaynab bint Jahsh,he organised a wedding feast in which was offered dates and a mush of wheat and he slaughtered a sheep.Anas said: ‘My mother Umm Sulaym sent him a container made of stone. The Prophet, Allah bless him andgive him peace, then commanded me to invite his Companions to eat and so I did. Groups of people came,ate and then left. I said: ‘O Prophet of Allah, I have invited everybody and there is no one else to invite’. Hesaid: ‘Take away your food’. They took away the food and people left, except for three people who stayed inthe room talking among themselves. They stayed so long that they annoyed the Messenger of Allah, Allahbless him and give him peace, who was extremely bashful [such that he could not ask them to leave]. Andso this verse was revealed, and the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, drew a veilbetween him and me’ ”. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Faqih informed us> Abu Umar Muhammad ibnAhmad al-Hiri> ‘Imran ibn Musa ibn Mujashi‘> ‘Abd al-A‘la ibn Hammad al-Nursi> al-Mu‘tamir ibnSulayman> his father> Abu Majlaz> Anas ibn Malik who said: “When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless himand give him peace, married Zaynab ibn Jahsh, he invited people to a wedding ceremony. People ate andthen remained in their seats talking to each other. The Prophet made as if he was preparing himself to leavebut people did not get the hint. He then left the room and people left with him, except for three people whoremained sitting. When the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, returned and found them stillsitting, he went out again. When they saw this, the three men left. I went and informed the Messenger ofAllah, Allah bless him and give him peace, that they had left. He returned and entered his room. I wanted toenter with him but he drew the curtain between him and me. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (O Ye whobelieve! Enter not the dwellings of the Prophet for a meal without waiting for the proper time…) up to Hiswords (Lo! that in Allah’s sight would be an enormity)”. This was narrated by Bukhari from Muhammad ibn‘Abd Allah al-Riqashi and also by Muslim from Yahya ibn Habib al-Harithi; both al-Riqashi and al-Harithirelated it from al-Mu‘tamir. Isma‘il ibn Ibrahim al-Wa‘iz informed us> Abu ‘Amr ibn Nujayd> Muhammad ibnal-Hasan ibn al-Khalil> Hisham ibn ‘Ammar> al-Khalil ibn Musa> ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Awn> ‘Amr ibn Shu‘ayb>Anas ibn Malik who said: “I was with the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, when hepassed by one of his rooms and saw people there sitting and talking. He then returned and entered theroom and drew the curtain in my face. I went to Abu Talhah and related to him what had happened. Hesaid: ‘If what you say is true, Allah, exalted is He, will reveal some Qur’an about it’. Allah, exalted is He, thenrevealed (O Ye who believe! Enter not the dwellings of the Prophet for a meal without waiting for the propertime)”. Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Hiri informed us> Hajib ibn Ahmad> ‘Abd al-Rahim ibn Munib> Yazid ibnHarun> Humayd> Anas who said: “‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be well pleased with him, said: ‘I said:‘O Messenger of Allah, the righteous and the corrupt enter in on you, why do you not command the mothersof the believers to be out of the sight of men’, and so Allah, exalted is He, revealed the verse of segregation(Ayat al-Hijab)’ ”. This was narrated by Bukhari> Musaddid> Yahya ibn Abi Za’idah> Humayd. Abu Hakim al-Jurjani informed us through verbal authorisation> Abu’l-Faraj al-Qadi> Muhammad ibn Jarir> Ya‘qub ibnIbrahim> Hushaym> Layth> Mujahid who related that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, was once eating with his Companions when the hand of one of them touched the hand of ‘A’ishahwho was with them. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, was upset because of this, and theverse of segregation was revealed. (… nor that ye should marry his wives after him…) [33:53]. ‘Ata’ relatedthat Ibn ‘Abbas said: “One of the nobles of Quraysh said: ‘I would marry ‘A’ishah if the Messenger of Allah,Allah bless him and give him peace, were to die’, and so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse”.
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَدْخُلُواْ بُيُوتَ النَّبِىِّ إِلاَّ أَن يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَى طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَـظِرِينَ إِنَـهُ وَلَـكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُواْ فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانْتَشِرُواْ وَلاَ مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤْذِى النَّبِىِّ فَيَسْتَحْيِى مِنكُمْ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَسْتَحْىِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَـعاً فَاسْـَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَآءِ حِجَابٍ ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ وَمَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تؤْذُواْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَلاَ أَن تَنكِحُواْ أَزْوَاجَهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ أَبَداً إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَظِيماً - إِن تُبْدُواْ شَيْئاً أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً
(53. O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet's houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behavior) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah's Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.)
(54. Whether you reveal anything or conceal it, verily, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything.)
This is the Ayah of Hijab, which includes several legislative rulings and points of etiquette. This is one of the cases where the revelation confirmed the opinion of `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, as it was reported in the Two Sahihs that he said: "My view coincided with that of my Lord in three things. I said, `O Messenger of Allah, why do you not take Maqam Ibrahim as a place of prayer' Then Allah revealed:
وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَهِيمَ مُصَلًّى
(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer) (2:125) And I said, `O Messenger of Allah, both righteous and immoral people enter upon your wives, so why do you not screen them' Then Allah revealed the Ayah of Hijab. And I said to the wives of the Prophet when they conspired against him out of jealousy,
عَسَى رَبُّهُ إِن طَلَّقَكُنَّ أَن يُبْدِلَهُ أَزْوَجاً خَيْراً مِّنكُنَّ
(It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you) (66:5), and this is what Allah revealed.'' In a report recorded by Muslim, the prisoners of Badr are mentioned, and this is a fourth matter (in which the view of `Umar coincided with that of his Lord). Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said: "`Umar bin Al-Khattab said: `O Messenger of Allah, both righteous and immoral people enter upon you, so why not instruct the Mothers of the believers to observe Hijab' Then Allah revealed the Ayah of Hijab.'' Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "When the Messenger of Allah married Zaynab bint Jahsh, he invited the people to eat, then they sat talking. When he wanted to get up, they did not get up. When he saw that, he got up anyway, and some of them got up, but three people remained sitting. The Prophet wanted to go in, but these people were sitting, then they got up and went away. I came and told the Prophet that they had left, then he came and entered. I wanted to follow him, but he put the screen between me and him. Then Allah revealed,
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَدْخُلُواْ بُيُوتَ النَّبِىِّ إِلاَّ أَن يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَى طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَـظِرِينَ إِنَـهُ وَلَـكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُواْ فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانْتَشِرُواْ
(O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet's houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse...)'' Al-Bukhari also recorded this elsewhere. It was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa'i. Then Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said: "The Prophet married Zaynab bint Jahsh with (a wedding feast of) meat and bread. I sent someone to invite people to the feast, and some people came and ate, then left. Then another group came and ate, and left. I invited people until there was no one left to invite. I said, `O Messenger of Allah, I cannot find anyone else to invite.' He said,
(Take away the food.) There were three people left who were talking in the house. The Prophet went out until he came to the apartment of `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, and he said,
«السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُه»
(May peace be upon you, members of the household, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.) She said, `And upon you be peace and the mercy of Allah. How did you find your (new) wife, O Messenger of Allah May Allah bless you.' He went round to the apartments of all his wives, and spoke with them as he had spoken with `A'ishah, and they spoke as `A'ishah had spoken. Then the Prophet came back, and those three people were still talking in the house. The Prophet was extremely shy, so he went out and headed towards `A'ishah's apartment. I do not know whether I told him or someone else told him when the people had left, so he came back, and when he was standing with one foot over the threshold and the other foot outside, he placed the curtain between me and him, and the Ayah of Hijab was revealed.'' This was recorded only by Al-Bukhari among the authors of the Six Books, apart from An-Nasa'i, in Al-Yaum wal-Laylah.
لاَ تَدْخُلُواْ بُيُوتَ النَّبِىِّ
(Enter not the Prophet's houses,) the believers were prohibited from entering the houses of the Messenger of Allah without permission, as they used to do during the Jahiliyyah and at the beginning of Islam, until Allah showed His jealousy over this Ummah and commanded them to seek permission. This is a sign of His honoring this Ummah. Hence the Messenger of Allah said:
«إِيَّاكُمْ وَالدُّخُولَ عَلَى النِّسَاء»
(Beware of entering upon women...) Then Allah makes an exception, when He says:
إِلاَّ أَن يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَى طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَـظِرِينَ إِنَـهُ
(unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation.) Mujahid, Qatadah and others said: "This means, without waiting for the food to be prepared.'' In other words, do not watch the food as it is being cooked to see if it is nearly ready, then come and enter the house, because this is one of the things that Allah dislikes and condemns. This indicates that it is forbidden to watch out for food being prepared, which is what the Arabs called Tatfil (being an uninvited guest). Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi wrote a book condemning those who watch out for food being prepared, and mentioned more things about this topic than we can quote here. Then Allah says:
وَلَـكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُواْ فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانْتَشِرُواْ
(But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse) In Sahih Muslim it is recorded that Ibn `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah said:
«إِذَا دَعَا أَحَدُكُمْ أَخَاهُ فَلْيُجِبْ عُرْسًا كَانَ أَوْ غَيْرَه»
(When anyone of you invites his bother, let him respond, whether it is for a wedding or for any other reason.)'' Allah says:
وَلاَ مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍ
(without sitting for a talk.) meaning, as those three people did who stayed behind and chatted, and forgot themselves to such an extent that this caused inconvenience for the Messenger of Allah as Allah says:
إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤْذِى النَّبِىِّ فَيَسْتَحْيِى مِنكُمْ
(Verily, such (behavior) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go);) It was said that what was meant was, your entering his houses without permission causes him inconvenience and annoyance, but he did not like to forbid them to do so because he felt too shy,' until Allah revealed that this was forbidden. Allah says:
وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَسْتَحْىِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ
(but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth.) meaning, `this is why He is forbidding and prohibiting you from doing that.' Then Allah says:
وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَـعاً فَاسْـَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَآءِ حِجَابٍ
(And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen,) meaning, `just as it is forbidden for you to enter upon them, it is forbidden for you to look at them at all. If anyone of you has any need to take anything from them, he should not look at them, but he should ask for whatever he needs from behind a screen.'
وَمَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تؤْذُواْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَلاَ أَن تَنكِحُواْ أَزْوَاجَهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ أَبَداً إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَظِيماً
(And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah's Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said concerning the Ayah;
وَمَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تؤْذُواْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ
(And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah's Messenger,) "This was revealed concerning a man who wanted to marry one of the wives of the Prophet after he died. A man said to Sufyan, `Was it `A'ishah' He said, `That is what they said.''' This was also stated by Muqatil bin Hayyan and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. He also reported with his chain of narration from As-Suddi that the one who wanted to do this was Talhah bin `Ubaydullah, may Allah be pleased with him, until this Ayah was revealed forbidding that. Hence the scholars were unanimous in stating that it was forbidden for anyone to marry any of the women who were married to the Messenger of Allah at the time when he died, because they are his wives in this world and in the Hereafter, and they are the Mothers of the believers, as stated previously. Allah regarded that as a very serious matter, and issued the sternest of warnings against it, as He said:
إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَظِيماً
(Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.) Then He said:
إِن تُبْدُواْ شَيْئاً أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً
(Whether you reveal anything or conceal it, verily, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything.) meaning, `whatever you conceal in your innermost thoughts, it is not hidden from Him at all.'
يَعْلَمُ خَآئِنَةَ الاٌّعْيُنِ وَمَا تُخْفِى الصُّدُورُ
(Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all that the breasts conceal.) (40:19).
Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala memerintahkan kepada hamba-hamba-Nya yang beriman agar memiliki adab terhadap Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam ketika masuk ke rumahnya.
Ayat ini merupakan larangan atas kaum mukmin masuk ke rumah-rumah Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam tanpa izin, sebagaimana yang mereka lakukan sebelumnya di zaman jahiliyyah dan awal-awal Islam ketika masuk ke rumah-rumah mereka, sehingga Allah cemburu, maka Dia memberitahukan hal ini. Hal ini merupakan pemuliaan Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala kepada umat ini. Selanjutnya, Dia mengecualikan dari hal itu dengan firman-Nya, âKecuali jika kamu diizinkan untuk makan tanpa menunggu waktu masak (makanannya)â yakni jangan kamu menunggu makanan ketika dimasak sehingga ketika hampir matang, kamu bersiap-siap masuk.
Menurut Ibnu Abbas radhiyallahu 'anhuma, bahwa beberapa orang kaum mukmin menunggu-nunggu waktu makan Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam, lalu mereka masuk menemui Beliau sebelum makanan matang sampai matang. Setelah itu, mereka makan dan tidak keluar, maka Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam merasa terganggu dengan mereka, sehingga turunlah ayat ini.
Sebelum makan maupun setelahnya.
Selanjutnya Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala menjelaskan hikmah dilarang dan faedahnya.
Yakni menunggu melebihi keperluan.
Karena perkara syarâi meskipun ada sangkaan jika meninggalkannya merupakan adab dan sikap malu, akan tetapi yang telah nyata dan jelas (kebenaran dan kebaikannya) adalah mengikuti perkara syarâi itu, dan memastikan bahwa segala yang menyelisihinya bukanlah adab. Allah tidak malu memerintahkan sesuatu yang di dalamnya terdapat kebaikan bagi kita serta bersikap lembut kepada Rasul-Nya shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Inilah adab ketika masuk ke rumah Beliau shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam.
Selanjutnya adab ketika berbicara dengan istri-istrinya adalah, karena hal itu bisa diperlukan dan bisa tidak diperlukan. Jika tidak diperlukan, maka adabnya adalah meninggalkannya, tetapi jika diperlukan seperti mereka (istri-istri Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) diminta sesuatu seperti perabotan rumah tangga dan sebagainya, maka mereka diminta dari balik hijab yang menghalangi antara si peminta dengan mereka sehingga tidak terlihat. Karena melihat mereka dalam keadaan bagaimana pun adalah haram.
Kemudian Allah menyebutkan hikmahnya.
Yakni lebih jauh dari hal yang meragukan, dan setiap kali seseorang jauh dari sebab-sebab yang mengajak kepada keburukan, maka hal itu lebih selamat baginya dan lebih membersihkan hatinya.
Selanjutnya Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala menyebutkan kalimat yang singkat dan padat serta sebagai kaidah umum.
Baik dengan lisan maupun dengan perbuatan.
Hal ini termasuk menyakiti hati Rasulullah shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Karena Beliau berada pada kedudukan yang seharusnya dimuliakan dan dihormati serta ditinggikan, sedangkan menikahi istri-istrinya berlawanan dengan kedudukan Beliau. Di samping itu, istri-istri Beliau adalah istri Beliau di dunia dan akhirat, sehingga tidak halal menikahi istri-istrinya setelah Beliau wafat oleh salah seorang di antara umat Beliau.
Umat Beliau pun menjauhi larangan itu, wal hamdulillah.