يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِمَا جَاءَكُمْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۙ أَنْ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَادًا فِي سَبِيلِي وَابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِي ۚ تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِمَا أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْهُ مِنْكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ
O you who have believed, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies, extending to them affection while they have disbelieved in what came to you of the truth, having driven out the Prophet and yourselves [only] because you believe in Allah, your Lord. If you have come out for jihad in My cause and seeking means to My approval, [take them not as friends]. You confide to them affection, but I am most knowing of what you have concealed and what you have declared. And whoever does it among you has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way.
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(O ye who believe! Choose not My enemy and your enemy for allies…) [60:1]. A group of Qur'anic exegetessaid: “This verse was revealed about Hatib ibn Abi Balta'ah. It happened that Sarah, the client of Abu 'Amribn Sayfi ibn Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf travelled from Mecca to Medina to see the Messenger of Allah, Allahbless him and give him peace, and found him getting ready to conquer Mecca. He asked her: 'Have youcome as a Muslim?' When she answered in the negative, he asked: 'What has brought you here, then?' Shesaid: 'You were my family, my clan and my patrons; I am in desperate need and have come so that you giveme and clothe me'. He said: 'What happened to all the youths of Mecca', he asked her this because she wasa singer. She said: 'No one has ever requested anything from me after the Battle of Badr!' The Messenger ofAllah, Allah bless him and give him peace, encouraged the Banu 'Abd al-Muttalib and the Banu'l-Muttalib tobe generous to her. They clothed her, gave her money and provided her with a mount. Hatib ibn AbiBalta'ah then got in touch with her, gave her ten pieces of gold and gave her a letter to hand over to thepeople of Mecca. He wrote in this letter: 'From Hatib to the people of Mecca: The Messenger of Allah, Allahbless him and give him peace, is about to attack you, so take precautions'. Sarah left and Gabriel, peace beupon him, came down and informed the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, of what Hatib haddone. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent 'Ali, 'Ammar, al-Zubayr, Talhah, al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad and Abu Marthad - who were all horsemen - saying to them: 'Proceed to the meadowof Khakh. You will find there a woman on a camel-borne sedan chair. This woman has a letter from Hatib tothe idolaters. Take that letter from her and let her go. But if she refuses to hand over the letter to you,behead her'. They proceeded to that location and found the woman there. They asked her: 'Where is theletter?' She swore by Allah that she did not have any letter with her. They searched her belongings but couldnot find the letter. They were about to leave when 'Ali said: 'By Allah, he did not tell us a lie, nor do wedisbelieve in what he said to us'. He unsheathed his sword and said: 'Give us the letter or, by Allah, I willstrip you of your clothes and then severe your head'. When she saw the seriousness of the matter, she gotout the letter from her lock, for she had hid it in her hair, and they let her go. They went back to theMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. He sent for Hatib and when the latter came, theMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, asked him: 'Do you recognize this letter?' And whenhe answered in the affirmative, he asked: 'What drove you to do it?' He said: 'O Messenger of Allah, byAllah, I have not disbelieved since I became Muslim, nor did I betray you since I took your side, nor did Ilove them [the idolaters] since I departed from them. However, there is not a single person among theEmigrants except that he has someone to defend his closest relatives [in Mecca]. And since I am a strangeramong them, and my family lives amongst them, I feared for them, and so I wanted to have someassistance from them, even though I knew that Allah will send His harm upon them and that my letter willbe of no avail to them'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, believed and forgavehim. This verse was then revealed (O ye who believe! Choose not My enemy and your enemy for allies…).'Umar ibn al-Khattab stood up and said: 'O Messenger of Allah, let me strike the neck of this hypocrite!' Butthe Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'O 'Umar, what do you know? It could bethat Allah has looked at the people of Badr and said: 'Do what you please for I have forgiven you' ”. AbuBakr Ahmad ibn al-Hasan ibn 'Amr informed us> Muhammad ibn Ya'qub> al-Rabi'> al-Shafi'i> Sufyan ibn'Uyaynah> 'Amr ibn Dinar> al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali> 'Ubayd Allah ibn Abi Rafi'> 'Ali who said: “TheMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent us, al-Zubayr, al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad and me,saying: 'Proceed to the meadow of Khakh where you will find a woman on a camel-borne sedan chair whohas a letter'. And so we set off riding our horses and proceeded until we found a woman on a camel-bornesedan chair. We said to her: 'Take the letter out'. She said: 'I do not have any letter!' We said to her: 'Youwill either give us the letter or we will strip you naked'. When she heard this, she got the letter from herbraids. We took it to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. The letter read: 'FromHatib ibn Abi Balta'ah to some people of the idolaters of Mecca', and informed them about some of what theMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, intended to do. The Prophet, Allah bless him andgive him peace, asked Hatib: 'What is this, O Hatib?' Hatib answered: 'Do not be hasty [in judging me], I ama man who is just annexed to the Quraysh, for I am not a Qurashite. All the Emigrants you have with youhave relatives who will protect their own relatives. I have no relatives in Mecca, and since I lacked relatives Iwanted to get some assistance from them. By Allah, I did not do it because I doubt my religion nor becauseI have accepted disbelief after choosing Islam'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace,said: 'He has said the truth!' But 'Umar exclaimed: 'Let me strike the neck of this hypocrite!' The Prophet,Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'He has taken part in the Battle of Badr; and you do not know,perhaps Allah has looked at those who took part in the Battle of Badr and said: 'Do as you please for I haveforgiven you'. Then this verse was revealed (O ye who believe! Choose not My enemy and your enemy forallies…)”. This was narrated by Bukhari from al-Humaydi and by Muslim from Abu Bakr ibn Shaybah andanother group, all of whom related it from Sufyan.
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُواْ بِمَا جَآءَكُمْ مِّنَ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّـكُمْ أَن تُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَاداً فِى سَبِيلِى وَابْتِغَآءَ مَرْضَاتِى تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَاْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَآ أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَآ أَعْلَنتُمْ وَمَن يَفْعَلْهُ مِنكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَآءَ السَّبِيلِ - إِن يَثْقَفُوكُمْ يَكُونُواْ لَكُمْ أَعْدَآءً وَيَبْسُطُواْ إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَلْسِنَتَهُمْ بِالسُّوءِ وَوَدُّواْ لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ - لَن تَنفَعَكُمْ أَرْحَـمُكُمْ وَلاَ أَوْلَـدُكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
(1. O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies as protecting friends, showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth, and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves because you believe in Allah, your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My cause and to seek My good pleasure. You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray from the straight path.)
(2. Should they gain the upper hand over you, they would behave to you as enemies, and stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil, and they desire that you should disbelieve.)
(3. Neither your relatives nor your children will benefit you on the Day of Resurrection. He will judge between you. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.)
The story of Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah is the reason behind revealing the beginning of this honorable Surah. Hatib was among the Early Emigrants and participated in the battle of Badr. Hatib had children and wealth in Makkah, but he was not from the tribe of Quraysh. Rather, he was an ally of `Uthman. When the Messenger of Allah decided to conquer Makkah, after its people broke the peace treaty between them, he ordered the Muslims to mobilize their forces to attack Makkah, and then said,
«اللْهُمَّ عَمِّ عَلَيْهِمْ خَبَرَنَا»
(O Allah! Keep our news concealed from them.) Hatib wrote a letter and sent it to the people of Makkah, with a woman from the tribe of Quraysh, informing them of the Messenger's intent to attack them. He wanted them to be indebted to him so that they would grant safety to his family in Makkah. Allah the Exalted conveyed this matter to His Messenger , because He accepted the Prophet's invocation to Him to conceal the news of the attack. The Prophet sent someone after the woman and retrieved the letter. This story is collected in the Two Sahihs. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hasan bin Muhammad bin `Ali said that `Abdullah bin Abu Rafi` -- or Ubaydullah bin Abu Rafi` -- said that he heard `Ali say, "Allah's Messenger sent me, Zubayr and Al-Miqdad saying,
«انْطَلِقُوا حَتْى تَأْتُوا رَوْضَةَ خَاخٍ فَإِنَّ بِهَا ظَعِينَةً مَعَهَا كِتَابٌ فَخُذُوهُ مِنْهَا»
(Proceed until you reach Rawdat Khakh, where there is a lady carrying a letter. Take that letter from her.) So we proceeded on our way, with our horses galloping, until we reached the Rawdah. There we found the lady and said to her, `Take out the letter.' She said, `I am not carrying a letter.' We said, `Take out the letter, or else we will take off your clothes.' So she took it out of her braid, and we brought the letter to Allah's Messenger . The letter was addressed from Hatib bin Abu Balta`ah to some pagans of Makkah, telling them about what Allah's Messenger intended to do. Allah's Messenger said,
«يَا حَاطِبُ، مَا هَذَا؟»
(O Hatib! What is this) Hatib replied, `O Allah's Messenger! Do not make a hasty decision about me. I was a person not belonging to Quraysh, but I was an ally to them. All the Emigrants who were with you have kinsmen (in Makkah) who can protect their families. So I wanted to do them a favor, so they might protect my relatives, as I have no blood relation with them. I did not do this out of disbelief or to renegade from my religion, nor did I do it to choose disbelief after Islam.' Allah's Messenger said to his Companions,
(Regarding him, he has told you the truth.) `Umar said, `O Allah's Messenger! Allow me to chop off the head of this hypocrite!' The Prophet said,
«إِنَّهُ قَدْ شَهِدَ بَدْرًا، وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّ اللهَ اطَّلَعَ إِلَى أَهْلِ بَدْرٍ فَقَالَ:اعْمَلُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ فَقَدْ غَفَرْتُ لَكُم»
(He attended Badr. What can I tell you, perhaps Allah looked at those who attended Badr and said, "O the people of Badr, do what you like, for I have forgiven you.'')'' The Group with the exception of Ibn Majah, collected this Hadith using various chains of narration that included Sufyan bin `Uyaynah. Al-Bukhari added in his narration in the chapter on the Prophet's battles, "Then Allah revealed the Surah,
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ
(O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as protecting friends...) '' Al-Bukhari said in another part of his Sahih, `Amr (one of the narrators of the Hadith) said, "This Ayah,
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ
(O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as protecting friends'...) was revealed about Hatib, but I do not know if the Ayah was mentioned in the Hadith (or was added as an explanation by one of the narrators).'' Al-Bukhari also said that `Ali bin Al-Madini said that Sufyan bin `Uyaynah was asked, "Is this why this Ayah,
لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ
(O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as protecting friends.) was revealed'' Sufyan said, "This is the narration that I collected from `Amr, I did not leave a letter out of it. I do not know if anyone else memorized the same words for it.''
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُواْ بِمَا جَآءَكُمْ مِّنَ الْحَقِّ
(O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies as protecting friends showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth,) refers to the idolators and the disbelievers who are combatants against Allah, His Messenger and the believers. It is they whom Allah has decided should be our enemies and should be fought. Allah has forbidden the believers to take them as friends, supporters or companions. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah ,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَـرَى أَوْلِيَآءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ
(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as protecting friends, they are but protecting friends of each other. And if any among you takes them (as such), then surely, he is one of them.) (5:51) This Ayah contains a stern warning and a sure threat. Allah the Exalted said,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ دِينَكُمْ هُزُواً وَلَعِباً مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَالْكُفَّارَ أَوْلِيَآءَ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ
(O you who believe! Take not as protecting friends those who take your religion as a mockery and fun from among those who received the Scripture before you, nor from among the disbelievers; and have Taqwa of Allah if you indeed are true believers.) (5:57)
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْكَـفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجْعَلُواْ للَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَاناً مُّبِيناً
(O you who believe! Take not for protecting friends disbelievers instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest proof against yourselves) (4:144) and,
لاَّ يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَـفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَىْءٍ إِلاَ أَن تَتَّقُواْ مِنْهُمْ تُقَـةً وَيُحَذِّرْكُمُ اللَّهُ نَفْسَهُ
(Let not the believers take the disbelievers as protecting friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself (His punishment).) (3:28) This is why Allah's Messenger accepted Hatib's excuse when he said that he only wanted to have a favor on the Quraysh, because of the property and family members he left behind in Makkah. Allah's statement,
يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّـكُمْ
(and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves ( from your homeland)) follows His encouragement to fight against them and to avoid being their supporters. This is because they expelled the Messenger and his Companions on account of their hatred for Tawhid and worshipping Allah alone in sincerity. This is why Allah the Exalted said,
أَن تُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ
(because you believe in Allah, your Lord!) meaning, `your only fault is that you believed in Allah, Lord of all that exists.' Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,
وَمَا نَقَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ إِلاَّ أَن يُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَمِيدِ
(And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, Almighty, Al-Hamid!) (85:8) and,
الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُواْ مِن دِيَـرِهِم بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلاَّ أَن يَقُولُواْ رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ
(Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly only because they said: "Our Lord is Allah.'') (22:40) Allah said,
إِن كُنتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَاداً فِى سَبِيلِى وَابْتِغَآءَ مَرْضَاتِى
(If you have come forth to strive in My cause and to seek My good pleasure.) Allah says, `if you are as described here, then do not take the disbelievers as supporters. If you migrated in Jihad for My cause and for seeking My pleasure, then do not take My enemies and your enemies as protecting friends, after they expelled you from your homes and property in rage against you and rejection of your religion.' Allah's statement,
تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَاْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَآ أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَآ أَعْلَنتُمْ
(You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal.) Allah asks, `do you do this while I know the secrets of the hearts, the intentions and all apparent things,'
وَمَن يَفْعَلْهُ مِنكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَآءَ السَّبِيلِإِن يَثْقَفُوكُمْ يَكُونُواْ لَكُمْ أَعْدَآءً وَيَبْسُطُواْ إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَلْسِنَتَهُمْ بِالسُّوءِ
(And whosoever of you does that, then indeed he has gone astray from the straight path. Should they gain the upper hand over you, they would behave to you as enemies, and stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil,) meaning, `if they gain the upper hand over you, they would use every type of harm in their disposal to hurt you in words and action,'
وَوَدُّواْ لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ
(and they desire that you should disbelieve.) meaning, `they are eager that you do not earn any good. Therefore, their enmity to you is outward and inward, so how can you become supporters of this type of people' This also encourages the enmity. Allah's statement,
لَن تَنفَعَكُمْ أَرْحَـمُكُمْ وَلاَ أَوْلَـدُكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
(Neither your relatives nor your children will benefit you on the Day of Resurrection. He will judge between you. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.) means, `your family relations will not benefit you with Allah if Allah decided to cause harm your way. Your relations will not benefit you if you please them with what angers Allah.' Those who agree with their family being disbelievers in order to please them will have earned loss and failure and their deeds will be rendered invalid. Their relation will not benefit them with Allah, even if their relation was with a Prophet. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that a man said, "O Allah's Messenger! Where is my father'' He said,
(In the Fire.) When the man went away, the Prophet called him back and said:
«إِنَّ أَبِي وَأَبَاكَ فِي النَّار»
(Verily, my father and your father are in the Fire.) Muslim and Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.
Hakim di juz 2 hal. 485 berkata: telah mengabarkan kepadaku Abdurrahman bin Al Hasan Qaadhi (hakim) di Hamdzaan, telah menceritakan kepada kami Ibrahim bin Al Husain, telah menceritakan kepada kami Adam bin Abi Iyas, telah menceritakan kepada kami Warqaâ dari Ibnu Abi Najih dari Mujahid dari Ibnu Abbas radhiyallahu 'anhuma tentang firman Allah âAzza wa Jalla, âWahai orang-orang yang beriman! Janganlah kamu menjadikan musuh-Kuâ¦sampai firman-Nya, âDan Allah Maha Melihat apa yang kamu kerjakan (ayat ke-3 surah ini).â Bahwa ayat tersebut turun berkenaan dengan pengiriman surat dari Hathib bin Abi Baltaâah dan orang yang bersamanya kepada orang-orang kafir Quraisy untuk memperingatkan mereka. Firman-Nya, âKecuali perkataan Ibrahim kepada ayahnyaâ¦(ayat ke-4).â Bahwa mereka (kaum muslimin) dilarang mengikuti permohonan ampun Nabi Ibrahim untuk ayahnya sehingga mereka (kaum muslimin ikut-ikutan) memohonkan ampunan untuk kaum musyrikin. Firman-Nya, âYa Tuhan Kami, janganlah Engkau jadikan kami (sasaran) fitnah bagi orang-orang kafir.â Maksudnya, janganlah Engkau mengazab kami melalui tangan mereka dan jangan pula langsung mendapat azab dari sisi-Mu, sehingga mereka (musuh) berkata, âKalau sekiranya mereka berada di atas kebenaran, tentu azab tidak akan menimpa mereka.â (Hakim berkata, âHadits ini shahih sesuai syarat Bukhari dan Muslim, namun keduanya tidak meriwayatkan.â Hadits ini didiamkan oleh Adz Dzahabi. Syaikh Muqbil menjelaskan, bahwa Adam bin Abi Iyas bukan termasuk para perawi Muslim, sehingga hadits tersebut menurut syarat Bukhari. Beliau (Syaikh Muqbil) berkata, âSaya berpaling dari hadits Ali yang ada di Bukhari dan Muslim, karena Al Haafizh dalam Al Fat-h juz 10 hal. 260 berkata, âSusunan (hadits tersebut) menjelaskan bahwa tambahan ini (dalam hadits Ali) adalah mudraj (diselipkan oleh seorang rawi), Muslim juga meriwayatkan dari Ishaq bin Rahawaih dari Sufyan, dan ia menerangkan bahwa pembacaan ayat adalah dari ucapan Sufyan.â Dari sini diketahui, bahwa kisah tersebut ada dalam Shahih Bukhari dan Muslim, akan tetapi turunnya ayat dan disebutkannya ayat itu adalah terputus karena Sufyan termasuk atbaaâuttaabiâin. Demikian pula ayat, âLaa yanhaakumullahâ¦dst (ayat ke-8).â Disebutkan turunnya ayat dari jalan Sufyan, maka itu juga termasuk ucapannya sebagaimana dalam Bukhari juz 13 hal. 17, demikian pula dalam Al Adabul Mufrad hal. 23, dan ada riwayat lagi dari jalan lain di sisi Thayalisi, Abu Yaâla, Ibnu Jarir dan yang lain, namun di sana terdapat Mushâab bin Tsabit, ia juga dhaâif sebagaimana dalam Al Miizan, oleh karenanya tidak saya (Syaikh Muqbil) tulis.â Kemudian di catatan kaki kitab Ash Shahiihul Musnad Syaikh Muqbil berkata, âKemudian tampak bagiku kedhaâifan hadits tersebut (hadits Hakim di atas) karena Abdurrahman bin Al Hasan (hanya) mengaku mendengar dari Ibrahim bin Al Husain, yaitu Ibnu Daiziil, demikian pula Ibnu Najih tidak mendengar tafsir dari Mujahid.â)
Banyak para mufassir rahimahumullah menerangkan, bahwa beberapa ayat yang mulia ini turun berkenaan dengan kisah Hathib bin Abi Baltaâah, yaitu ketika Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam hendak menaklukkan Mekah dan merahasiakan perkara itu, maka Hathib menulis surat tentang maksud Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam tersebut kepada orang-orang kafir Mekah bukan karena ia sebagai munafik, tetapi karena ia memiliki anak dan keluarga yang masih musyrik di sana, maka Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam mengambil surat itu dari wanita yang menerima surat dari Hathib karena pemberitahuan Allah kepada Beliau, kemudian Beliau mencela Hathib, maka Hathib menyebutkan alasannya, lalu diterima alasannya itu.
Yakni kerjakanlah konsekwensi imanmu berupa memberikan walaâ kepada orang-orang yang beriman dan memusuhi orang-orang yang menolak beriman, karena sesungguhnya ia musuh Allah dan musuh kaum mukmin.
Yaitu orang-orang kafir Mekah.
Hal itu, karena kasih sayang apabila terjadi, maka akan diiringi dengan sikap menolong dan membela.
Bagaimana seseorang mengambil orang-orang kafir yang menjadi musuhnya sebagai teman setianya, padahal mereka tidak menginginkan untuknya selain keburukan dan ia tinggalkan Tuhannya yang menginginkan kebaikan untuk dirinya. Di samping itu, orang-orang kafir telah ingkar kepada kebenaran yang dibawa kaum mukmin, bahkan mereka juga telah mengusir rasul dan kaum mukmin dari kampung halaman mereka tanpa kesalahan apa pun selain karena mereka beriman kepada Allah Tuhan mereka yang semua makhluk wajib beribadah kepada-Nya karena Dia telah mengurus mereka dan melimpahkan kepada mereka nikmat-nikmat yang tampak maupun yang tersembunyi.
Yaitu agama Islam dan Al Qurâan.
Yakni jika keluarmu dengan maksud berjihad di jalan Allah untuk meninggikan kalimat Allah dan mencari keridhaan-Nya, maka kerjakanlah konsekwensinya yaitu berwalaâ kepada wali-wali Allah dan memusuhi musuh-musuh-Nya; yang demikian merupakan jihad fii sabilillah dan ia termasuk ibadah yang mendekatkan diri kepada Allah dan memperoleh keridhaan-Nya.
Yakni bagaimana kamu memberitahukan secara rahasia (berita-berita Nabi Muhammad shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) kepada orang-orang kafir, karena rasa kasih sayang kepada mereka padahal kamu mengetahui bahwa Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala mengetahui apa yang kamu sembunyikan dan apa yang kamu tampakkan. Perkara itu, meskipun tersembunyi bagi kaum mukmin, namun tidaklah tersembunyi bagi Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala dan Dia akan memberikan balasan kepada hamba-hamba-Nya sesuai yang Dia ketahui dari mereka, baik atau buruk.
Yani memberikan walaâ kepada orang-orang kafir setelah Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala memperingatkannya.
Hal itu, karena dia telah menempuh jalan yang menyelisihi syaraâ, akal dan jalan manusia sejati.