تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ
May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he.
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(The power of Abu Lahab will perish, and he will perish…) [111:1-5]. Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Hiri informedus> the chamberlain of Ibn Ahmad> Muhammad ibn Hammad> Abu Mu‘awiyah> al-A‘mash> ‘Amr ibnMurrah> Sa‘id ibn Jubayr> Ibn ‘Abbas who said: “One day, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and givehim peace, climbed al-Safa [hill] and shouted: ‘Come to me!’ And so all the Quraysh gathered around him.They said: ‘What ails you?’ He said: ‘If I were to tell you that the enemy is going to attack you in themorning or in the evening, would you not have believed me?’ They said: ‘Indeed, we would believe you’. Hesaid: ‘In that case, I am a warner sent to you against a tremendous chastisement’. Abu Lahab said inresponse: ‘May you perish, is this why you have summoned all of us here?’ And so Allah, glorified andmajestic is He, revealed (The power of Abu Lahab will perish, and he will perish…) up to the end of theSurah”. This was narrated by Bukhari from Muhammad ibn Salam from Abu Mu‘awiyah. Sa‘id ibn Muhammadal-‘Adl informed us> Abu ‘Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Faqih> ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Mubashshir al-Wasiti> Abu’l-Ash‘ath Ahmad ibn al-Miqdam> Yazid ibn Zuray‘> al-Kalbi> Abu Salih> Ibn ‘Abbas who said: “TheMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, stood up once and called: ‘O household of Ghalib! Ohousehold of Lu’ayy! O household of Murrah! O household of Kilab! O household of Qusayy! O household of‘Abd Manaf! I have nothing in my possession which will spare you from Allah’s chastisement nor can Ipromise you any share from this world unless you say: there is no deity except Allah’. Abu Lahab said tohim: ‘May you perish, is this why you have summoned us?’ And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (The powerof Abu Lahab will perish, and he will perish)”. Abu Ishaq al-Muqri’ informed us> ‘Abd Allah ibn Hamid>Makki ibn ‘Abdan> ‘Abd Allah ibn Hashim> ‘Abd Allah ibn Numayr> al-A‘mash> ‘Abd Allah ibn Murrah> Sa‘idibn Jubayr> Ibn ‘Abbas who said: “When the verse (And warn thy tribe of near kindred) [26:214], theMessenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, went toward al-Safa, climbed it and then called: ‘It’smorning time, get ready!’ people gathered around him (some came in person and some sent their ownemissary). He said: ‘O Banu ‘Abd al-Muttalib! O Banu Fihr! O Banu Lu’ayy! If I were to inform you thathorsemen at the foot of this mountain intend to raid you, would you believe me?’ They said: ‘Yes!’ He said:‘Then, I am a warner sent to you against an imminent, tremendous chastisement’. Abu Lahab said: ‘May youperish! You summoned us just for this!’ And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (The power of Abu Lahab willperish, and he will perish)”.
تَبَّتْ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ - مَآ أَغْنَى عَنْهُ مَالُهُ وَمَا كَسَبَ - سَيَصْلَى نَاراً ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ - وَامْرَأَتُهُ حَمَّالَةَ الْحَطَبِ - فِى جِيدِهَا حَبْلٌ مِّن مَّسَدٍ
(1. Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!)
(2. His wealth and his children will not benefit him!)
(3. He will enter a Fire full of flames!)
(4. And his wife too, who carries wood.)
(5. In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad.
Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas that the Prophet went out to the valley of Al-Batha and he ascended the mountain. Then he cried out,
(O people, come at once!) So the Quraysh gathered around him. Then he said,
«أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ حَدَّثْتُكُمْ أَنَّ الْعَدُوَّ مُصَبِّحُكُمْ، أَوْ مُمَسِّيكُمْ أَكُنْتُمْ تُصَدِّقُونِّي»
؟ (If I told you all that the enemy was going to attack you in the morning, or in the evening, would you all believe me) They replied, "Yes.'' Then he said,
«فَإِنِّي نَذِيرٌ لَكُمْ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ عَذَابٍ شَدِيد»
(Verily, I am a warner (sent) to you all before the coming of a severe torment.) Then Abu Lahab said, "Have you gathered us for this May you perish!'' Thus, Allah revealed,
تَبَّتْ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ
(Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!) to the end of the Surah. In another narration it states that he stood up dusting of his hands and said, "Perish you for the rest of this day! Have you gathered us for this'' Then Allah revealed,
تَبَّتْ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ
(Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!) The first part is a supplication against him and the second is information about him. This man Abu Lahab was one of the uncles of the Messenger of Allah.His name was `Abdul-`Uzza bin Abdul-Muttalib. His surname was Abu `Utaybah and he was only called Abu Lahab because of the brightness of his face. He used to often cause harm to the Messenger of Allah . He hated and scorned him and his religion. Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Az-Zinad that a man called Rabi`ah bin `Abbad from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dil, who was a man of pre-Islamic ignorance who accepted Islam, said to him, "I saw the Prophet in the time of pre-Islamic ignorance in the market of Dhul-Majaz and he was saying,
«يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، قُولُوا: لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ تُفْلِحُوا»
(O people! Say there is no god worthy of worship except Allah and you will be successful.) The people were gathered around him and behind him there was a man with a bright face, squint (or cross) eyes and two braids in his hair. He was saying, "Verily, he is an apostate (from our religion) and a liar!'' This man was following him (the Prophet ) around wherever he went. So, I asked who was he and they (the people) said, "This is his uncle, Abu Lahab.'' Ahmad also recorded this narration from Surayj, who reported it from Ibn Abu Az-Zinad, who reported it from his father (Abu Zinad) who mentioned this same narration. However in this report, Abu Zinad said, "I said to Rabi`ah, `Were you a child at that time' He replied, `No. By Allah, that day I was most intelligent, and I was the strongest blower of the flute (for music).''' Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith. Concerning Allah's statement,
مَآ أَغْنَى عَنْهُ مَالُهُ وَمَا كَسَبَ
(His wealth and his children (Kasab) will not benefit him!) Ibn `Abbas and others have said,
(and his children (Kasab) will not benefit him!) "Kasab means his children.'' A similar statement has been reported from `A'ishah, Mujahid, `Ata', Al-Hasan and Ibn Sirin. It has been mentioned from Ibn Mas`ud that when the Messenger of Allah called his people to faith, Abu Lahab said, "Even if what my nephew says is true, I will ransom myself (i.e., save myself) from the painful torment on the Day of Judgement with my wealth and my children.'' Thus, Allah revealed,
مَآ أَغْنَى عَنْهُ مَالُهُ وَمَا كَسَبَ
(His wealth and his children will not benefit him!) Then Allah says,
سَيَصْلَى نَاراً ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ
(He will enter a Fire full of flames!) meaning, it has flames, evil and severe burning.
وَامْرَأَتُهُ حَمَّالَةَ الْحَطَبِ
(And his wife too, who carries wood.) His wife was among the leading women of the Quraysh and she was known as Umm Jamil. Her name was `Arwah bint Harb bin Umayyah and she was the sister of Abu Sufyan. She was supportive of her husband in his disbelief, rejection and obstinacy. Therefore, she will be helping to administer his punishment in the fire of Hell on the Day of Judgement. Thus, Allah says,
وَامْرَأَتُهُ حَمَّالَةَ الْحَطَبِ - فِى جِيدِهَا حَبْلٌ مِّن مَّسَدٍ
(Who carries wood. In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad.) meaning, she will carry the firewood and throw it upon her husband to increase that which he is in (of torment), and she will be ready and prepared to do so.
فِى جِيدِهَا حَبْلٌ مِّن مَّسَدٍ
(In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad.) Mujahid and `Urwah both said, "From the palm fiber of the Fire.'' Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas, `Atiyah Al-Jadali, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd that she used to place thorns in the path of the Messenger of Allah . Al-Jawhari said, "Al-Masad refers to fibers, it is also a rope made from fibers or palm leaves. It is also made from the skins of camels or their furs. It is said (in Arabic) Masadtul-Habla and Amsaduhu Masadan, when you tightly fasten its twine.'' Mujahid said,
فِى جِيدِهَا حَبْلٌ مِّن مَّسَدٍ
(In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad.) "This means a collar of iron.'' Don't you see that the Arabs call a pulley cable a Masad
Ibn Abi Hatim said that his father and Abu Zur`ah both said that `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr Al-Humaydi told them that Sufyan informed them that Al-Walid bin Kathir related from Ibn Tadrus who reported that Asma' bint Abi Bakr said, "When
تَبَّتْ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ
(Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he)!) was revealed, the one-eyed Umm Jamil bint Harb came out wailing, and she had a stone in her hand. She was saying, `He criticizes our father, and his religion is our scorn, and his command is to disobey us.' The Messenger of Allah was sitting in the Masjid (of the Ka`bah) and Abu Bakr was with him. When Abu Bakr saw her he said, `O Messenger of Allah! She is coming and I fear that she will see you.' The Messenger of Allah replied,
«إِنَّهَا لَنْ تَرَانِي»
(Verily, she will not see me.) Then he recited some of the Qur'an as a protection for himself. This is as Allah says,
وَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرءَانَ جَعَلْنَا بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالاٌّخِرَةِ حِجَابًا مَّسْتُورًا
(And when you recite the Qur'an, We put between you and those who believe not in the Hereafter, an invisible veil.) (17:45) So she advanced until she was standing in front of Abu Bakr and she did not see the Messenger of Allah . She then said, `O Abu Bakr! Verily, I have been informed that your friend is making defamatory poetry about me.' Abu Bakr replied, `Nay! By the Lord of this House (the Ka`bah) he is not defaming you.' So she turned away saying, `Indeed the Quraysh know that I am the daughter of their leader.''' Al-Walid or another person said in a different version of this Hadith, "So Umm Jamil stumbled over her waist gown while she was making circuits (Tawaf) around the House (the Ka`bah) and she said, `Cursed be the reviler.' Then Umm Hakim bint `Abdul-Muttalib said, `I am a chaste woman so I will not speak abusively and I am refined so I do not know. Both of us are children of the same uncle. And after all the Quraysh know best.'' This is the end of the Tafsir of this Surah, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.
Imam Bukhari meriwayatkan dengan sanadnya yang sampai kepada Ibnu Abbas radhiyallahu 'anhuma ia berkata: Ketika turun ayat, âDan berilah peringatan kepada kerabat-kerabatmu yang terdekat,â (Terj. Asy Syuâaraa: 214) Maka Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam naik ke atas Shafa dan menyeru, âWahai Bani Fihr, wahai Bani âAddiy.â Beliau menyebut beberapa suku orang Quraisy, sehingga mereka semua berkumpul, dan orang yang tidak bisa keluar mengirim utusan untuk melihat ada apa, lalu Abu Lahab dan orang-orang Quraisy datang, maka Beliau bersabda, âBagaimana menurutmu jika aku beritahukan kepadamu, bahwa ada sebuah pasukan berkuda di sebuah lembah yang hendak menyerangmu, apakah kamu akan membenarkanku?â Mereka menjawab, âYa, kami belum pernah mendapatkanmu selain berkata benar.â Beliau pun bersabda, âSesungguhnya aku seorang yang memberi peringatan kepadamu sebelum datang azab yang keras.â Lalu Abu Lahab berkata, âCelakalah kamu sepanjang hari! Apakah untuk hal ini engkau kumpulkan kami?â Maka turunlah surah, âBinasalah kedua tangan Abu Lahab dan benar-benar binasa dia!-- Tidaklah berguna baginya hartanya dan apa yang dia usahakanâ¦dst.â (Hadits ini diriwayatkan pula oleh Muslim, Tirmidzi, Ahmad, Ibnu Jarir dalam At Taarikh juz 2 hal. 216 dan dalam At Tafsir juz 19 hal. 121 dan juz 30 hal. 337, dan Baihaqi dalam Dalaaâilun Nubuwwah juz 1 hal. 431. Dalam âUmdatul Qaari juz 16 hal. 93 diterangkan, bahwa hadits ini mursal, karena Ibnu Abbas ketika itu masih kecil; bisa belum lahir atau sebagai anak-anak sebagaimana dipastikan oleh Al Ismaaâiliy, namun mursal tersebut adalah mursal shahabi, sedangkan mursal shahabiy tidaklah mengapa dan tidak mencacatkannya. Wallahu Taâaala aâlam bish shawab.)
Abu Lahab adalah paman Nabi Muhammad shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam sendiri, namun sangat memusuhi Beliau shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam dan menyakitinya. Oleh karena itulah, Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala mencelanya dengan celaan yang keras ini yang merupakan celaan dan kehinaan yang berkelanjutan untuknya sampai hari Kiamat.
Yang dimaksud dengan kedua tangan Abu Lahab ialah Abu Lahab itu sendiri. Digunakan kata âkedua tanganâ karena pada umumnya tindakan manusia dilakukan oleh kedua tangannya. Kalimat ini merupakan doa kerugian dan kecelakaan untuk Abu Lahab.