كَيْفَ يَكُونُ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ عَهْدٌ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَعِنْدَ رَسُولِهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ عِنْدَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۖ فَمَا اسْتَقَامُوا لَكُمْ فَاسْتَقِيمُوا لَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ
How can there be for the polytheists a treaty in the sight of Allah and with His Messenger, except for those with whom you made a treaty at al-Masjid al-Haram? So as long as they are upright toward you, be upright toward them. Indeed, Allah loves the righteous [who fear Him].
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(O ye who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasure in disbeliefrather than faith) [9:23-24]. Said al-Kalbi: “When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give himpeace, was commanded to migrate to Medina, some men went to their fathers, brothers or wives and said:'We have been commanded to migrate to Medina'. Thus, some people liked the command and hastened toexecute it, while the wives, dependents and children of others hung on to some others, saying: 'We beseechyou by Allah not to leave us to no one, causing our waste and peril'. The hearts of these softened for themand, as a result, they refrained from migrating. These words of Allah, exalted is He, were then revealed torebuke them (O ye who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasurein disbelief rather than faith…)”. As for those who stayed back in Mecca and did not migrate, Allah, exalted isHe, revealed (then wait till Allah bringeth His command to pass…) [9:24], meaning fighting and theconquest of Mecca.
كَيْفَ يَكُونُ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ عَهْدٌ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَعِندَ رَسُولِهِ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ عَـهَدْتُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ فَمَا اسْتَقَـمُواْ لَكُمْ فَاسْتَقِيمُواْ لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ
(7. How can there be a covenant with Allah and with His Messenger for the Mushrikin except those with whom you made a covenant near Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) So long as they are true to you, stand you true to them. Verily, Allah loves those who have Taqwa.)
Allah mentions the wisdom in dissolving all obligations to the idolators and giving them a four month period of safety, after which they will meet the sharp sword wherever they are found,
كَيْفَ يَكُونُ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ عَهْدٌ
(How can there be a covenant for the Mushrikin), a safe resort and refuge, while they persist in Shirk with Allah, and disbelief in Him and His Messenger,
إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ عَـهَدْتُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ
(except those with whom you made a covenant near Al-Masjid Al-Haram), on the day of Hudaybiyyah. Allah said in another Ayah concerning the day of Hudaybiyyah,
هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفاً أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ
(They are the ones who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice.) 48:25 Allah said next,
فَمَا اسْتَقَـمُواْ لَكُمْ فَاسْتَقِيمُواْ لَهُمْ
(So long as they are true to you, stand you true to them.), if they keep the terms of the treaties you conducted with them, including peace between you and them for ten years,
فَاسْتَقِيمُواْ لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ
(then stand you true to them. Verily, Allah loves those who have Taqwa.) The Messenger of Allah and the Muslims preserved the terms of the treaty with the people of Makkah from the month of Dhul-Qa`dah in the sixth year of Hijrah, until the Quraysh broke it and helped their allies, Banu Bakr, against Khuza`ah, the allies of Allah's Messenger . Aided by the Quraysh, Banu Bakr killed some of Bani Khuza`ah in the Sacred Area! The Messenger of Allah led an invasion army in the month of Ramadan, of the eighth year, and Allah opened the Sacred Area for him to rule over them, all thanks are due to Allah. The Messenger of Allah freed the Quraysh who embraced Islam after they were overpowered and defeated. These numbered around two thousands, and they were refered to by the name `Tulaqa' afterwards. Those among them who remained in disbelief and ran away from Allah's Messenger were sent promises of safe refuge for four months, during which they were allowed to move about freely. They included Safwan bin Umayyah, `Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl and many others. Allah later on guided them to Islam, and they became excellent believers. Surely, Allah is worthy of all praise for all His actions and decrees.
Sedangkan mereka kafir kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya, mengganggu rasul dan kaum mukmin, lagi mengingkari janji. Oleh karena itu, Allah layak berlepas diri dari mereka, dan tidak mengadakan perjanjian aman dengan orang-orang musyrik.
Dari kalangan musyrikin.
Yang dimaksud dengan dekat Masjidilharam adalah Al-Hudaibiyah, suatu tempat yang terletak dekat Makkah di jalan ke Madinah. Pada tempat itu Nabi Muhammad shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam mengadakan perjanjian gencatan senjata dengan kaum musyrikin selama 10 tahun.
Dengan mengindahkan perjanjian dan tidak merusaknya.
Dengan memenuhi janji dan tidak melanggarnya. Nabi shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam berlaku lurus terhadap mereka dengan mengindahkan perjanjian sampai mereka melanggarnya dengan menolong Bani Bakar melawan Khuzaâah.