۞ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ ۚ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ
Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will be reminded.
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(Lo! Allah enjoineth justice and kindness…) [16:90]. Abu Ishaq Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim informedus> Shu'ayb ibn Muhammad al-Bayhaqi> Makki ibn 'Abdan> Abu'l-Azhar> Rawh ibn 'Ubadah> 'Abd al-Hamid ibn Buhram> Shahr ibn Hawshab> 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas who said: “While the Messenger of Allah,Allah bless him and give him peace, was sitting in his House's courtyard in Mecca, 'Uthman ibn Maz'unpassed by and smiled at him. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'Will you notsit down?' He sat down facing toward him. As the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace was talkingto 'Uthman, his eyes turned toward heaven, he looked upward for a while and then brought his gaze downand looked down at the ground on his right hand side. Then, he looked away from his companion 'Uthmantoward where he gazed, moving his head as if trying to understand what he was being told. He then lookedup again toward heaven, as he did the first time, and kept looking up until his gaze was completely focusedon heaven. Then he was back with 'Uthman as he was initially. 'Uthman said: 'O Muhammad, I used to cometo see you and sit with you and I have never seen you do what you did this morning'. The Prophet, Allahbless him and give him peace, said: 'And what did you see me do?' He said: 'I saw you raising your eyestoward heaven, you looked down on your right, and then you moved away from me and moved your headas if trying to understand something which was being said to you'. The Prophet said: 'Did you catch all that?'when 'Uthman said he did, the Prophet said: 'Gabriel came to me earlier on while you were sitting'. 'Uthmanasked: 'And what did he tell you?' He said: 'He told me (Lo! Allah enjoineth justice and kindness, and givingto kinsfolk, and forbiddeth lewdness and abomination and wickedness. He exhorteth you in order that yemay take heed)'. 'Uthman said: 'It was at that point that faith became firm in my heart and I lovedMuhammad, Allah bless him and give him peace' ”.
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإْحْسَانِ وَإِيتَآءِ ذِى الْقُرْبَى وَيَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَالْبَغْى يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ
(90. Verily, Allah orders justice and kindness, and giving (help) to the relatives, and He forbids immoral sins, and evil and tyranny. He admonishes you, so that perhaps you may take heed.)
Allah tells us that He commands His servant to be just, i.e., fair and moderate, and that He encourages kindness and good treatment. As He says:
وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُواْ بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُمْ بِهِ وَلَئِن صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِّلصَّـبِرينَ
(And if you punish them, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you have patience with them, then it is better for those who are patient.) (16:126)
وَجَزَآءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ
(The recompense for an offense is an offense the like thereof; but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with Allah.) 42:40
وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ فَمَن تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَّهُ
(and wounds equal for equal. But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity, it shall count as atonement for him.) 5:45 And there are other Ayat which support the institution of justice in Islam, as well as encouraging a fair and generous attitude.
وَإِيتَآءِ ذِى الْقُرْبَى
(and giving (help) to relatives,) meaning that Allah is commanding us to uphold the ties of kinship, as He says:
وَءَاتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَلاَ تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا
(And give the relative his due and to the poor and to the wayfarer. But do not spend wastefully in the manner of a spendthrift.) (17:26)
وَيَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ
(and He forbids immoral sins, and evil) Fahsha' refers to all things that are forbidden, and Munkar refers to those forbidden deeds that are committed openly by the one who does them. Hence Allah says elsewhere:
قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ
(Say (O Muhammad): "(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are the indecencies, whether committed openly or secretly) (7:33) Baghy refers to aggression towards people. In a Hadith, the Prophet said:
«مَا مِنْ ذَنْبٍ أَجْدَرَ أَنْ يُعَجِّلَ اللهُ عُقُوبَتَهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعَ مَا يَدَّخِرُ لِصَاحِبِهِ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْبَغْيِ وَقَطِيعَةِ الرَّحِم»
(There is no sin more deserving of having its punishment hastened in this world, as well as what is reserved in the Hereafter for the one who does it, than tyrannical aggression and cutting the ties of kinship.)
(He admonishes you,) meaning, He commands what He commands you of good and He forbids what He forbids you of evil;
(so that perhaps you may take heed) Ash-Sha`bi reported that Shatiyr bin Shakl said: "I heard Ibn Mas`ud say: `The most comprehensive Ayah in the Qur'an is in Surat An-Nahl:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإْحْسَانِ
(Verily, Allah enjoins justice and kindness...)''' It was reported by Ibn Jarir.
Concerning the revelation of this Ayah, Imam Ahmad reported a Hasan Hadith from `Abdullah bin `Abbas who said: "While the Messenger of Allah was sitting in the courtyard of his house, `Uthman bin Maz`un passed by and smiled at the Messenger of Allah . The Messenger of Allah said to him,
(Won't you sit down) He said, `Certainly.' So the Messenger of Allah sat facing him, and while they were talking, the Messenger of Allah began looking up at the sky, looking at it for a while, then he brought his gaze down until he was looking at the ground to his right. Then the Messenger of Allah turned slightly away from his companion `Uthman to where he was looking. Then he began to tilt his head as if trying to understand something, and Ibn Maz`un was looking on. When the matter was finished and he had understood what had been said to him, the Messenger of Allah stared at the sky again as he had the first time, looking at whatever he could see until it disappeared. Then he turned back to face `Uthman again. `Uthman said, `O Muhammad, I have never seen you do anything like you did today while I was sitting with you.' The Messenger of Allah said:
«وَمَا رَأَيْتَنِي فَعَلْتُ؟»
(What did you see me do) `Uthman said: `I saw you staring at the sky, then you lowered your gaze until you were looking to your right, then you turned to him and left me. Then you tilted your head as if you were trying to understand something that was being said to you.' The Messenger of Allah said,
(Did you notice that) `Uthman said, `Yes'. The Messenger of Allah said:
«أَتَانِي رَسُولُ اللهِ آنِفًا وَأَنْتَ جَالِس»
(A messenger from Allah came to me just now, when you were sitting here.) `Uthman said, `A messenger from Allah' The Messenger of Allah said,
(Yes.) `Uthman said, `And what did he say to you' The Messenger of Allah said:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإْحْسَانِ
(Verily, Allah orders justice and kindness...) `Uthman said: `That was when faith was established in my heart and I began to love Muhammad .'' It is a Hasan Hadith having a good connected chain of narrators in which their hearing it from each other is clear.
Adil artinya menempatkan sesuatu pada tempatnya dan memberikan hak kepada masing-masing yang mempunyai hak. Adil yang diperintahkan Allah ini mencakup adil terhadap hak-Nya dan adil terhadap hak hamba-Nya. Caranya adalah dengan menunaikan kewajibannya secara sempurna. Kepada Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta'aala, misalnya dengan mentauhidkan-Nya dan tidak berbuat syirk, menaati-Nya dan tidak mendurhakai, mengingat-Nya dan tidak melupakan, serta bersyukur kepada-Nya dan tidak kufur. Kepada manusia, misalnya dengan memenuhi haknya. Jika sebagai pemimpin, maka ia memenuhi kewajibannya terhadap orang yang berada di bawah kepemimpinannya, baik ia sebagai pemimpin dalam ruang lingkup yang besar (imamah kubra), menjabat sebagai qadhi (hakim), wakil khalifah atau wakil qadhi. Adil juga berlaku dalam muâamalah, yaitu dengan bermuâamalah dalam akad jual beli dan tukar-menukar dengan memenuhi kewajiban kita, tidak mengurangi hak orang lain (seperti mengurangi takaran dan timbangan), tidak menipu dan tidak menzalimi.
Adil hukumnya wajib, sedangkan ihsan adalah keutamaan dan disukai, misalnya dengan memberikan lebih dari yang diwajibkan, seperti memberikan manfaat kepada orang lain dengan harta, badan, ilmu atau lainnya. Jika dalam ibadah, maka dengan mengerjakan kewajiban atau beribadah kepada Allah seakan-akan melihat-Nya.
Disebutkan memberikan sesuatu kepada kerabat meskipun masuk dalam keumuman, agar mendapatkan perhatian lebih. Kerabat di sini mencakup kerabat dekat maupun jauh, akan tetapi semakin dekat, maka semakin berhak mendapat kebaikan.
Yaitu dosa besar yang dianggap keji baik oleh syaraâ maupun fitrah, seperti syirk, membunuh dengan tanpa hak, zina, mencuri, âujub, sombong, merendahkan manusia, dan lain-lain.
Yaitu perbuatan dosa yang terkait dengan hak Allah.
Ada yang menafsirkan baghyu dengan, âperbuatan dosa yang terkait dengan manusia.â
Dengan perintah dan larangan. Ayat ini mencakup semua perintah dan larangan, di mana tidak ada sesuatu pun kecuali masuk di dalamnya. Ayat ini merupakan kaidah, di mana masalah juzâiyyah (satuan) masuk ke dalamnya. Oleh karena itu, setiap perkara yang mengandung keadilan, ihsan, dan memberi kepada kerabat, maka hal ini termasuk yang diperintahkan Allah, sedangkan setiap perkara yang mengandung perkara keji, munkar atau zalim kepada manusia, maka hal ini termasuk yang dilarang Allah. Maka Mahasuci Allah, yang menjadikan dalam firman-Nya petunjuk, cahaya, dan pembeda antara sesuatu.
Karena apabila kamu sudah mengambil pelajaran darinya, memahami dan mengerti, maka kamu dapat mengamalkan konsekwensinya, sehingga kamu dapat berbahagia.